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Fresh vs highly processed with synthetic supplements. Please click on the links below to read more about optimal nutrition for cats. This page was last edited on 12 September , at Infection, electrocution and injury: I do not recommend these dry foods for long-term feeding for all of the reasons stated above. Many readers of this website have kindly donated their valuable time to translate this important information into various languages.
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Because of this evidence, the USDA believes that WIC can reduce funding and still meet the needs of those who truly are in need of assistance . Conversely, the same report explained that some members of the USDA have concluded that the current method for estimating eligibility is flawed and reports a much lower number of eligible citizens than actually exists.
The method is flawed because it measures income on an annual basis instead of a monthly basis. When the researchers compared monthly income to annual income, they found that the number of income-eligible people increased dramatically a monthly evaluation level. No mention of the effect on mothers was mentioned. They concluded that if income were measured monthly, then a larger number of families would be eligible to participate in WIC .
Other research suggests that instead of redefining WIC eligibility requirements, policymakers should better advertise how lenient the requirements are. In a study published in , Craig Gundersen, a professor in the Department of Nutritional Science at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, found that many parents stop using WIC funds to care for their children after their children reach the age of one year. Only one in nine non-participating children nationwide are ineligible for WIC aid.
To combat this phenomenon, Gundersen suggests that if policymakers want to reach those most in need, they need to target this group of people who were once on WIC and left, not new recipients. Eligibility for participation in the WIC program has been affected by a number of federal programs and policy changes since the s. The federal government has gradually increased its control over WIC program policies, which has resulted in a move away from state program control.
For instance, the nutritional risk criteria that had previously been instituted by the state cutoffs were standardized by the federal government in Allowing these groups to be eligible, in effect, raised the income eligibility threshold for WIC services.
Research has identified an increase in health benefits among WIC program participants that could offset the additional costs of Medicaid in the future. Changes in welfare benefits are also estimated to increase the adjunctive eligibility rate. A state was allowed to match federal funds for meals in private schools.
Requirements to use certain WIC funds for the costs of nutrition services and administration were extended . WIC program participation can be affected by an introduction of new programs or changes to existing policy of programs that affect women, infants, and children. If services increase under the TANF program, a specific segment of participants in the WIC program, such as infants, showed a decrease in participation. Implementation of the TANF program accounts for a 9.
In addition to current programs that affect eligibility and participation in the WIC program, many states distribute waivers that extend program rules, change work requirements, and extend program timelines that affect eligibility and participation in WIC.
WIC's impact is affected by internal programs. Some scholars assert that the spending structure needs to be adjusted so a greater number of eligible individuals can receive WIC services.
Transferring some spending to other parts of the program is under consideration. Besharov and Germanis argue that a sustained effort to make the program more effective should begin with a policy debate about WIC's role and impacts.
Opportunities for improving the Nutritional Status of Women, Infants, and Children , authors Fox, McManus, and Schmidt from the George Washington University, say local WIC agencies are required to make nutrition education available to participants at least twice in each six-month certification period. The initial nutritional session is usually conducted during the intake appointment with the individual, and subsequent sessions are typically offered in a group format lasting about 10 to 15 minutes.
These education sessions are optional than mandatory This practice raises questions about the efficiency of WIC spending.
People doubt the legitimacy of the minute nutritional education since it is too short to play a part in improving the participant's nutritional status. Therefore, it is reasonable to ask: Would it be more effective and efficient if the spending for this session is transferred to other useful areas? A Cause for Concern? The higher retail value of the WIC food benefit for infants is due to the inclusion of infant formula.
Since the WIC program encourages breast feeding, it raises a question similar to the foregoing: Would it be more effective and efficient if some of the spending on infant formula is transferred to drawing more participation of WIC, making more people eligible for this program? Participants of WIC receive checks, vouchers, or electronic cards to purchase food at participating retail markets each month to supplement their diets.
The program food package is designed to address the specific needs of low-income pregnant, breastfeeding, and postpartum non-breastfeeding women; infants; and children up to five years of age who are nutritionally at risk. The food purchased with WIC vouchers must be on the approved list of approved foods. Up until , the list of approved foods was meant to help supplement participant's diets to contain the following priority nutrients: Nationwide data showed that WIC participants had inadequate intake of vitamin E, magnesium, calcium, potassium, and fiber while using the original food packages.
Participants also had an excessive intake of saturated fats, sodium, zinc, and preformed vitamin A. In response to the lack of intended program outcomes, the U.
Department of Agriculture's Food and Nutrition Service assigned the Institute of Medicine's Committee to assess the effectiveness of the food package content.
This included prioritizing the targeted nutrient intake and offering recommendations for specific changes to the WIC food packages. To do this, the committee was charged with making recommendations that were "culturally suitable, non-burdensome to administration, efficient for nationwide distribution and vendor checkout, and cost-neutral.
This change to the food package was done again in , which put the food package in compliance with the Dietary Guideline for Americans. This change introduced an inclusion of cash-value vouchers for fruits, vegetables, whole-wheat bread, corn or whole-wheat tortillas, brown rice, oats, bulgur, and barley.
Milk purchase options were also altered to only include lower-fat milk for all women and all children over 2 years of age. The adjustment in the food package had a significant effect on participant nutrition. The literature suggested that there has been a significant increase in the overall nutrition of WIC participants as a result of these food package changes.
Participants were surveyed before and after the new food package implementations. The data showed that there was a Currently, WIC food packages include infant cereal, iron-fortified adult cereal, fruit rich in vitamin C, vegetable juice, eggs, milk, cheese, peanut butter, beans, and fish. WIC has recently expanded this list to also include soy-based beverages, tofu, baby foods, whole-wheat bread, and a variety of fruits and vegetables.
The literature painted a clear picture of the improvements that have been made and the effect the food package change has made in increasing the nutrition of WIC participants. WIC has dramatically reduced healthcare costs by a providing prenatal services, and b promoting breastfeeding. Several controlled evaluations have shown that women who receive prenatal WIC services have lower hospital costs for both them and their infants than women who did not receive WIC services.
In , prenatal WIC enrollment was estimated to have reduced first year medical costs for U. Prenatal use of WIC services also decreases the odds of having a low birth-weight newborn by 25 percent and reduces very low birth-weight births by 44 percent.
One reason that WIC is known as being cost-effective is explained in a study done in by Debbie Montgomery and Patricia Splett where they showed that promotion of breast-feeding in the WIC program is an effective cost-containment action.
Historically, WIC has been portrayed as an efficient and effective use of taxpayer dollars. Finding or conducting research that conclusively proves that portrayal is somewhat difficult. Two challenges exist, finding research that encompasses all areas of WIC and conducting scientific research.
Research on WIC tends to focus on the help provided to pregnant women and newborns. The research on this part of WIC shows that the help provided is effective and the system is efficient.
These results are then used to determine that all of the WIC programs are effective. Besharov and Germanis . Conducting scientific research on an aid program like WIC is also problematic. First, it is difficult, if not impossible, to establish a control group. To do so would require a researcher to take people asking for aid and then split them into two groups. Aid would then need to be denied to one of the groups. This would be unethical. Second, it is difficult to account for other variables that could affect infant and children health, in addition to the help provided by WIC.
An example would be parental motivation. How do you determine if the results of WIC were because of the program or due to effective parenting? More effective parents may be more likely to seek WIC help earlier and longer. That may be the real reason for success rather than how the program is delivered. In spite of its success, the WIC program, as with any program that involves coordination and communication between many people, faces challenges in delivering nutrition services, such as the coordination of its nutrition services with changing health and welfare programs.
Welfare reform increases demands on WIC management in performing outreach and coordination. New health challenges include the "obesity epidemic". The demography of the low-income population that the WIC program serves is constantly changing. Retention of staff, employment of paraprofessionals, and the allocation of resources for staff training are additional challenges, along with the use of information technology to assess the effect of nutrition services and to enhance service delivery and program management within the limits of program funding.
In the light of the above challenges, the United States General Accounting Office GAO did research and made recommendations to USDA that would help it to identify strategies that will address WIC's challenges in recruiting and retaining a skilled staff and assessing the effects of nutrition services. It was recommended that:. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see WIC disambiguation.
Retrieved 20 November This project will support the government of Bangladesh in making evidence-based decision on multisectoral nutrition programming for adolescent girls through conducting research and dissemination of its findings. Can Conditional Cash Transfers improve child nutrition and cognitive development?
Capacity development and communication for improved nutrition outcomes in rural households. The project will improve dietary diversity and care practices of pregnant and nursing women in remote rural areas in Bhutan which will address malnutrition in the first 1, day window of opportunity.
This will be carried out by identifying change agents and drivers of food habits to develop materials and collaboratively engage target groups in behavior change communication BCC activities in Samtse Dzongkhag.
The two proposed components follow a BCC theory of change. Furthermore, the project will strengthen the enabling environment for GAFSP-funded FSAPP by rooting the project in very specific social contexts, distilling and aiming to address the multiple drivers of malnutrition. This will help ensure both acceptability of interventions among involved communities, sustainability of improved practices and potential for scaling-up.
Technical support to cross-sectoral work on nutrition the North East of India. The primary objectives of this task are to better understand the barriers to improved nutrition and health in North East India and to help state governments develop strategies and programs to address these issues.
The program will identify gaps in maternal and child health and nutrition services for disadvantaged communities, and support development of cross-sectoral strategies to combat malnutrition at the community level. This will be done through analytical work involving both primary and secondary data analysis to identify gaps and bottlenecks, informing the development of contextual and feasible strategies and technical assistance aimed at improving program design..
The objective of this grant is to produce estimates of the burden of malnutrition and disease for four states in India — Uttar Pradesh, Nagaland, Uttarakhand, and Meghalaya — consistent with the estimates and methods used for the overall Global Burden of Disease GBD Project. GBD provides tools to quantify levels and trends of health loss due to diseases including malnutrition , injuries, and risk factors for countries from to Co-financed with the Gates Foundation, the SAFANSI-II project in India is to produce an essential tool for evidence-based nutrition and health policymaking and comparative metrics for different causes of premature death and disability.
In this phase, the project is to identify data and networks of collaborators and make preliminary estimates for the four states. The objective of SAFANSI-II project is to consolidate the work under SAFANSI-I, to further improve adaptive capacity, while improving the diagnosis of how market and government failures affect food security; supporting an experimentation-based approach to improve program design and implementation for FNS outcomes; taking the SO approach to new program interventions that aim to improve the functioning of the top-down public programs for food and nutrition security in India; and seeding a system of adaptive capacity to catalyze implementation for FNS outcomes in one new, nutrition focused programs in South Asia.
Thus far, SO has developed innovative tools and techniques, such as FNS participatory-tracking to improve the adaptive capacity of large-scale projects. The tools have helped substantially improve implementation of four targeted rural livelihoods projects in effectively addressing food and nutrition insecurity. SO has also collected primary data, including food prices paid by poor and rich. The team published 11 notes and reports related to Bihar and Tamil Nadu data collection thus far.
SO has measured the extent of differences in prices paid by the poor and rich, within the same village, for the same foods, demonstrated how an intervention can change gender norms in a highly patriarchal society, and developed an important new method to allow large numbers of citizens to measure and track their own progress on food and nutrition security related issues.
There also are 12 articles and briefs about SO on the Bank external websites, and 8 YouTube videos on methodologies and stakeholder interviews. More information is available at the Social Observatory Website. The project will support the state government in determining the overall strategy and design of a conditional cash transfer CCT program aimed at improving maternal and child health and nutrition practices and service utilization within the critical 1, day period.
It will draw on the implementation experience of CCT programs in India, including in Madhya Pradesh, as well as on lessons and best practice from international experience.
Technical support will also be provided for piloting the CCT program, through the development of systems required for implementation such as i systems for registration of beneficiaries and recording achievement of conditions, ii payment systems iii operational procedures and manuals iv communication and awareness generation v monitoring and evaluation systems vi strategies for inter-departmental coordination; and vii grievance redressal mechanisms.
While the state government is expected to finance and lead the implementation of the pilot, continued technical assistance will be provided by the Bank to ensure implementation and monitoring systems developed are working effectively. The project aims to increase household access to micronutrients and enhance the contribution of the dairy sector to improving food and nutrition security of these households in India.
The project development objective PDO of the impact evaluation is to estimate the causal effect of the Nutrition House Pilot Project in Tamil Nadu on nutrition indicators, and explore whether access to nutritious meals and services in the project areas result in increased nutrition outcomes.
A key intervention will seek to prepare nutrient-dense snacks and foods out of goods that are easily perishable or underutilized and that, in some cases, would otherwise be wasted.
The transformation of the recovered food waste into nutrient-dense snacks and foods will take place at the Nutrition House, and will be prepared by beneficiaries students of the Chefs Certification Program. The Nutrition House will host a restaurant-school that will offer workshops on nutrition and the benefits of underutilized foods, as well as on traditional recipes.
The pilot will benefit communities by addressing the issue of food loss and waste through innovation and technology while promoting safe and nutritious foods and services. This program will support i the design of a strategy for the development of nutrition and sanitation social enterprises in Bihar; and ii provide technical assistance for implementation of the same, contributing to improving access of nutrition and sanitation products and services to households as part of the recently approved Bihar Transformative Development Project USD million in the state.
Parliamentarians and State Legislators for Collective Action. The objective of this project is to improve the understanding of nutrition as a development issue among the Parliamentarians and State Legislators in India in order to seek all party solutions to increase public accountability on nutrition for better access to safe and nutritious food. Success will be measured in terms of the number of Parliamentarians and State Legislators that are engaged in a collective action and commit to good nutrition through influencing public policy, programs, and institutional arrangements on food and nutrition in targeted areas.
The firm selection is on-going, and the data collection is expected to commence in September SHD IE is to assess, through a household survey, effectiveness of an innovative Rapid Results Approach RRA , by which communities are motivated to achieve a self-selected goal in day cycles on nutrition outcomes and community development.
Despite delays due to earthquake and fuel crisis, the mid-term IE completed data collection. The preliminary data analysis indicates moderate impact of the SHD intervention on some of the main indicators e. However, it is not clear how it relates to goal choice at village level , which will be further analyzed together with the SAFANSI-II financed qualitative survey see below.
The mid-term IE, together with the qualitative survey, is expected to influence policies and support SHD scale up. The objective of this grant is to improve the evidence base and understanding of the design and process of Sunaula Hazar Din SHD, Community Action for Nutrition Project at the community level.
Paying special attention to gender and social inclusion perspectives e. Key research questions include how goals are selected at the community level; what roles coaches play in achieving goals; how having a female leader influences the RRA outcomes; how the communities perceive success and failure of the initiatives; and why certain groups succeed and others fail.
Given the mega-earthquake that hit the country in April , the study questions and methodologies will take into account the influence the earthquake might have had on the approach and intended outcomes. Prior to the earthquake, Nuwakot was categorized as minimally food insecure with a pre-existing global acute malnutrition prevalence of 9. However, after the earthquake, the district was classified as one of the most food insecure districts in Nepal, because agricultural production has been interfered by displacement of families, damage to land, and disruption of livelihood supply chains.
Adolescent nutrition in Pakistan: The objective of this work will be to provide concrete policy and program options to improve adolescent nutrition in Pakistan, based on evidence of the magnitude and distribution of nutrition problems, their determinants and potential factors that could facilitate or impede progress. This project aims to improve the demand and uptake of health and nutrition services and promote key behaviors conducive to positive nutritional outcomes in Punjab pilot districts.
The technical support will ensure that the design parameters and processes meet the technical standards along the results chain. Sohail Saeed Abbasi and Yoonyoung Cho. This project will aim to establish a monitoring system for nutrition-specific and nutrition-sensitive public expenditure and embed it within the public financial management systems in Pakistan.
The project will work closely with the Controller General of Accounts, the institutional custodian of the public financial management system, to establish a system of tracking nutrition-specific and nutrition-sensitive expenditure. The overall development goal of this project is to strengthen the allocative and technical efficiencies for country-led planning, budgeting, and prioritization of nutrition interventions through health, nutrition, population, social protection, water, sanitation and hygiene WASH , education, and agriculture and rural development programs in up to 5 high-burden countries in South Asia i.
Afghanistan, Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka , and thereby enhance the impact of national and international investments. Second, it will develop options to address the challenges identified, make policy and programmatic recommendations and advocate for their adoption. The grant development objective of the INPARD program is to investigate whether a multi-sectoral rural development program can be utilized to deliver nutrition promotion intervention within rural Sri Lanka and whether this is effective in improving nutrition outcomes.
INPARD supported nutrition promotion activities implemented through multi-sectoral government stakeholders, including health, agriculture, rural development, administration, education, fisheries and Samurdhi poverty eradication national program. It is envisaged that the evaluation, composed of household survey and multi-stakeholder focus group discussions, is to build evidence to demonstrate linkages between health and nutrition outcomes and their upstream determinants, such as socioeconomic context, education, occupation, and income.
The team completed data collection, and data are being analyzed. The results will be shared at two regional workshops with multi-sectoral teams consisting of consists of stakeholders from health, agriculture, rural development, administration, education, fisheries and Samurdhi poverty eradication national program , amongst others , and presented at a South Asian Symposium later in Schmitt , Seenithamby Manoharan.
Building Effective Nutrition Communication through Partnerships: The grant a creates an evidence based public policy dialogue via offline and online communication platforms on estate nutrition issues to lead to the development of an estate nutrition plan of action; and b develops a collaborative network of public, private and NGO partners engaged in advocacy, community mobilization and ICT to take forward the development and implementation of an estate nutrition plan of action.
Over the last decades, studies have shown that the estate nutrition status is lagging behind the rest of the country, despite many nutrition and health interventions. In previous round , the SAFANSI-financed study has identified gaps in multi-sectoral approaches to nutrition interventions, suggesting improved knowledge and understanding of the multi-sectoral determinants of nutrition.
This grant supports mapping of key stakeholders and pilot innovative communication outreach in Estate, using ICT and social media. The project will assess whether a larger agriculture project could be integrated into multi-sectoral interventions and to improve the nutritional status of individual farmers, their families and communities.
It will add a significant amount of new evidence in identifying challenges for the implementation of common interventions and possible solutions to address them. This study aims to involve academia, a number of government ministries along with the media.
Events will be organized for different levels of interactions from top to bottom at village , district, provincial and national levels. The objective is to identify successful behaviors of positive deviants that could enable estate sector residents to achieve better nutrition outcomes. While the majority of nutrition studies and interventions tend to focus on problems and barriers that prevent children from reaching their full potential, the proposed positive deviance PD project will enable the key stakeholders to: You may explore this research below.
An Investment Framework for Nutrition in Afghanistan: A rapid assessment of iron and folic acid supplementation during pregnancy through the basic package of health services. Raising nutrition awareness among young women in Afghanistan through the female youth employment initiative. Nutrition information with the pilot cash transfer program.
Increasing the nutritional impact of the National Horticulture and Livestock Productivity project. The National Solidarity Programme: Using cash cards to make better nutrition choices in Bangladesh PDF. Dynamics of rural growth in Bangladesh: Early childhood diarrhea in rural Bangladesh. Dynamics of Rural Growth in Bangladesh: Improved nutrition through agricultural extension and advisory services in India. A targeted rural livelihoods program in Orissa.
Food and nutrition security in tribal areas of India. Promoting agriculture nutrition convergence through participatory extension videos. Promoting positive nutrition behavior in Bihar, India. Digital Green Agriculture-Nutrition Convergence: Managing food price volatility in a large open country: Impacting food security and nutrition outcomes through strengthening livelihoods: Integrating nutrition in rural livelihoods and value chains and the role of producer companies. Jeevika in rural Bihar: A picture is worth a thousand words.
What does the Social Observatory Do? Recasting culture to undo gender: The Distributional Consequences of Group Procurement: Participatory Tracking- Customizing Visualizations.