Scientific Report of the 2015 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee

Diabetes nutrition therapy

Dietary fiber
Daniels , Sarah D. The association of pediatric obesity with nocturnal non-dipping on hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. To lose weight, most people need to reduce the number of calories they get from foods and beverages and increase their physical activity. Dietary fats and cardiovascular disease: The first food introduced should be a single-ingredient food that is served in a small portion for 2 to 7 days 3. Reply David Mendosa September 4, at 5: Cardiovascular health promotion in children:

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Vitamin B12

The intake of legumes—beans, chickpeas, split peas, and lentils—may be the single most important dietary predictor of a long lifespan.

But what about concerns about intestinal gas? To see any graphs, charts, graphics, images, and quotes to which Dr. Greger may be referring, watch the above video. If you want to increase your lifespan, eat beans. Breaking wind or breaking down? Passing gas or passing on? The vast majority of people experienced no symptoms at all—though a few percent did report increased flatulence. So, it may occur in some individuals. So, people thinking beans are going to cause gas may just be more likely to notice the gas they normally have.

Bottom line no pun intended! The long-term health benefits of bean consumption are great. Please consider volunteering to help out on the site. You may republish this material online or in print under our Creative Commons licence. Normalization of plasma vitamin B12 concentration by intranasal hydroxocobalamin in vitamin Bdeficient patients.

Dietary intake of macronutrients, micronutrients and other dietary constituents: Vital Heath Stat 11 ; Dietary intake of selected vitamins for the United States population: Advance Data from Vital and Health Statistics; no National Center for Health Statistics. Cobalamin, the stomach, and aging. Malabsorption of food cobalamin. Baillieres Clin Haematol ;8: Oral vitamin B12 versus intramuscular vitamin B12 for vitamin B12 deficiency. Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 3: Oral vitamin B12 versus intramuscular vitamin B12 for vitamin B12 deficiency: Crit Rev Clin Lab Sci ; The effect of vitamin B12 deficiency on older veterans and its relationship to health.

J Am Geriatr Soc ; Neurological aspects of cobalamin deficiency. Folate, vitamin B12, and neuropsychiatric disorders. Homocysteine and methylmalonic acid in diagnosis and risk assessment from infancy to adolescent. Adverse effects of increased dietary folate.

Relation to measures to reduce the incidence of neural tube defects. Clin Invest Med ; Gastric acidity in older adults. J Am Med Assoc ; Atrophic gastritis in the aged.

Australas Ann Med ; Prevalence of endoscopic and histological findings in subjects with and without dyspepsia. Br Med J ; Fundic atrophic gastritis in an elderly population: Effect on hemoglobin and several serum nutritional indicators. Prevalence of undiagnosed pernicious anemia in the elderly. Arch Intern Med ; Reversal of protein-bound vitamin B12 malabsorption with antibiotics in atrophic gastritis. Diagnosis and management of clinical and subclinical cobalamin deficiency: Curr Hematol Rep ;5: Elevated methylmalonic acid and total homocysteine levels show high prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency after gastric surgery.

Ann Intern Med ; Are vitamin B12 and folate deficiency clinically important after roux-en-Y gastric bypass? J Gastrointest Surg ;2: Impaired assimilation of egg Co 57 vitamin B 12 in patients with hypochlorhydria and achlorhydria and after gastric resection.

Persistence of neurological damage induced by dietary vitamin B12 deficiency in infancy. Arch Dis Childhood ; Position of the American Dietetic Association: The Hordaland Homocysteine Study: J Nutr ; 6 Suppl: Homocysteine as a biomarker for cognitive dysfunction in the elderly.

Diet and lifestyle recommendations revision Plasma homocyst e ine and arterial occlusive diseases: Association between plasma homocysteine concentrations and extracranial carotid-artery stenosis.

N Engl J Med ; Folate and vitamin B6 from diet and supplements in relation to risk of coronary heart disease among women. Homocysteine and cardiovascular disease. Annu Rev Med ; A newly recognized risk factor for vascular disease. Neth J Med ; Vitamin status and intake as primary determinants of homocysteinemia in an elderly population. Atherogenesis and the homocysteine-folate-cobalamin triad: J Am Coll Nutr ; Measurement of homocyst e ine in the prediction of arteriosclerosis.

Vitamins B6, B12, and folate: The effect of a subnormal vitamin B6 status on homocysteine metabolism. J Clin Invest ; Effects of folic acid and combinations of folic acid and vitamin B12 on plasma homocysteine concentrations in healthy, young women.

Lowering blood homocysteine with folic acid based supplements. Br Med J Folic acid and vitamin B12 are more effective than vitamin B6 in lowering fasting plasma homocysteine concentration in patients with coronary artery disease. Eur J Clin Nutr ; Homocysteine lowering and cardiovascular events after acute myocardial infarction. Homocysteine lowering with folic acid and B vitamins in vascular disease. N Engl J Med. Effects of B-vitamins on plasma homocysteine concentrations and on risk of cardiovascular disease and dementia.

Effect of folic acid and B vitamins on risk of cardiovascular events and total mortality among women at high risk for cardiovascular disease: Mortality and cardiovascular events in patients treated with homocysteine-lowering B vitamins after coronary angiography: Lowering homocysteine in patients with ischemic stroke to prevent recurrent stroke, myocardial infarction, and death: Curr Opin Hematol ;1: Folate and cobalamin in psychiatric illness. Plasma homocysteine as a risk factor for dementia and Alzheimer's disease.

Low vitamin B status and risk of cognitive decline in older adults. Effect of oral vitamin B with or without folic acid on cognitive function in older people with mild vitamin B deficiency: No effect of vitamin B treatment on cognitive function and depression: J Affect Disord ; Effect of vitamins and aspirin on markers of platelet activation, oxidative stress and homocysteine in people at high risk of dementia.

J Intern Med ; A trial of B vitamins and cognitive function among women at high risk of cardiovascular disease. High-dose B vitamin supplementation and cognitive decline in Alzheimer disease: Vitamin B6, B12, and folic acid supplementation and cognitive function: Arch Intern Med Jan ; Vitamin B12 for cognition. Folic acid with or without vitamin B12 for the prevention and treatment of health elderly and demented people. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. Vitamin and mineral status: Omeprazole and vitamin B12 deficiency.

Vitamin absorption in the elderly. Int J Vitam Nutr Res ; Vitamin B12 levels during prolonged treatment with proton pump inhibitors. This document is copyrighted and is property of the American Academy of Pediatrics and its Board of Directors. All authors have filed conflict of interest statements with the American Academy of Pediatrics. Any conflicts have been resolved through a process approved by the Board of Directors.

The American Academy of Pediatrics has neither solicited nor accepted any commercial involvement in the development of the content of this publication. All policy statements from the American Academy of Pediatrics automatically expire 5 years after publication unless reaffirmed, revised, or retired at or before that time.

We only request your email address so that the person you are recommending the page to knows that you wanted them to see it, and that it is not junk mail. We do not capture any email address. Skip to main content. Search for this keyword. This policy is a revision of the policy in 2: From the American Academy of Pediatrics. Abstract Breastfeeding and human milk are the normative standards for infant feeding and nutrition. Introduction Six years have transpired since publication of the last policy statement of the American Academy of Pediatrics AAP regarding breastfeeding.

View inline View popup. Infant Outcomes Methodologic Issues Breastfeeding results in improved infant and maternal health outcomes in both the industrialized and developing world.

Obesity Because rates of obesity are significantly lower in breastfed infants, national campaigns to prevent obesity begin with breastfeeding support. Childhood Leukemia and Lymphoma There is a reduction in leukemia that is correlated with the duration of breastfeeding.

Neurodevelopmental Outcomes Consistent differences in neurodevelopmental outcome between breastfed and commercial infant formula—fed infants have been reported, but the outcomes are confounded by differences in parental education, intelligence, home environment, and socioeconomic status.

Preterm Infants There are several significant short- and long-term beneficial effects of feeding preterm infants human milk. Maternal Outcomes Both short- and long-term health benefits accrue to mothers who breastfeed. Duration of Exclusive Breastfeeding The AAP recommends exclusive breastfeeding for about 6 months, with continuation of breastfeeding for 1 year or longer as mutually desired by mother and infant, a recommendation concurred to by the WHO 78 and the Institute of Medicine.

Contraindications to Breastfeeding There are a limited number of medical conditions in which breastfeeding is contraindicated, including an infant with the metabolic disorder of classic galactosemia. Maternal Medications Recommendations regarding breastfeeding in situations in which the mother is undergoing either diagnostic procedures or pharmacologic therapy must balance the benefits to the infant and the mother against the potential risk of drug exposure to the infant.

Pacifier Use Given the documentation that early use of pacifiers may be associated with less successful breastfeeding, pacifier use in the neonatal period should be limited to specific medical situations. Vitamins and Mineral Supplements Intramuscular vitamin K 1 phytonadione at a dose of 0. Role of the Pediatrician Pediatricians have a critical role in their individual practices, communities, and society at large to serve as advocates and supporters of successful breastfeeding Table 6.

Conclusions Research and practice in the 5 years since publication of the last AAP policy statement have reinforced the conclusion that breastfeeding and the use of human milk confer unique nutritional and nonnutritional benefits to the infant and the mother and, in turn, optimize infant, child, and adult health as well as child growth and development.

Lead Authors Arthur I. Eidelman, MD Richard J. Footnotes This document is copyrighted and is property of the American Academy of Pediatrics and its Board of Directors. Breastfeeding and the use of human milk. Breastfeeding Handbook for Physicians. Elk Grove Village, IL: American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists; American Academy of Pediatrics Section on Breastfeeding.

Sample Hospital Breastfeeding Policy for Newborns. American Academy of Pediatrics; Residency curriculum improves breastfeeding care. American Academy of Pediatrics. Safe and Health Beginnings: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; Breastfeeding in the United States: National Center for Health Statistics; Accessed June 3, Breastfeeding report card—United States, Department of Health and Human Services.

Maternal, infant, and child health. Healthy People ; Accessed December 12, Breastfeeding and maternal and infant health outcomes in developed countries. S17 — S30 pmid: Full breastfeeding duration and associated decrease in respiratory tract infection in US children. Breastfeeding reduces the severity of respiratory syncytial virus infection among young infants: Prolonged and exclusive breastfeeding reduces the risk of infectious diseases in infancy.

Breastfeeding and hospitalization for diarrheal and respiratory infection in the United Kingdom Millennium Cohort Study. An exclusively human milk-based diet is associated with a lower rate of necrotizing enterocolitis than a diet of human milk and bovine milk-based products. Breastfeeding and reduced risk of sudden infant death syndrome: Chen A , Rogan WJ. Breastfeeding and the risk of postneonatal death in the United States. SIDS and other sleep-related infant deaths: Does breastfeeding reduce the risk of sudden infant death syndrome?

Bartick M , Reinhold A. The burden of suboptimal breastfeeding in the United States: How many child deaths can we prevent this year? Effects of early nutritional interventions on the development of atopic disease in infants and children: Timing of solid food introduction in relation to atopic dermatitis and atopic sensitization: Timing of initial exposure to cereal grains and the risk of wheat allergy.

Timing of solid food introduction in relation to eczema, asthma, allergic rhinitis, and food and inhalant sensitization at the age of 6 years: Age at the introduction of solid foods during the first year and allergic sensitization at age 5 years.

Effect of breast feeding on risk of coeliac disease: Factors influencing the composition of the intestinal microbiota in early infancy. Effect of infant feeding on the risk of obesity across the life course: Breastfeeding in infancy and adult cardiovascular disease risk factors.

Breastfeeding as obesity prevention in the United States: Am J Hum Biol. Dewey KG , Lönnerdal B. Infant self-regulation of breast milk intake. S77 — S84 pmid: Do infants fed from bottles lack self-regulation of milk intake compared with directly breastfed infants? Early infant feeding and risk of type 1 diabetes mellitus—a nationwide population-based case-control study in pre-school children.

Diabetes Metab Res Rev. Breastfeeding prevents type 2 diabetes mellitus: Am J Clin Nutr. Does prolonged breastfeeding reduce the risk for childhood leukemia and lymphomas? Childhood acute leukemia, early common infections, and allergy: Breastfeeding and the risk of childhood leukemia: Effect of breast feeding on intelligence in children: Effects of prolonged and exclusive breastfeeding on child behavior and maternal adjustment: Breastfeeding and child cognitive development: Beneficial effects of breast milk in the neonatal intensive care unit on the developmental outcome of extremely low birth weight infants at 18 months of age.

Persistent beneficial effects of breast milk ingested in the neonatal intensive care unit on outcomes of extremely low birth weight infants at 30 months of age. Randomised trial of early diet in preterm babies and later intelligence quotient.

Impact of breast milk on intelligence quotient, brain size, and white matter development. The effect of maternal milk on neonatal morbidity of very low-birth-weight infants. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. Lucas A , Cole TJ. Breast milk and neonatal necrotising enterocolitis. Early human milk feeding is associated with a lower risk of necrotizing enterocolitis in very low birth weight infants. Feeding strategies for premature infants: Neurodevelopmental and growth outcomes of extremely low birth weight infants after necrotizing enterocolitis.