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Torment appears on the first set of discs as an album highlight rather than in its re-recorded inch single version as part of the singles tracks. In Middle English literature, a beautiful man should have a flat abdomen. Unlike many workout programs on the market, Pack Abs is delivered and a video and MP3 guide designed to help you master some proven exercises that work your abs. For both men and women, there appear to be universal criteria of attractiveness both within and across cultures and ethnic groups. November 24, at We also briefly discuss how knowledge of these important steps has been used in the metabolic engineering of carotenoid biosynthesis in plants. As such, you may be doing yourself a huge disservice—shooting yourself in the foot.

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An alternative pathway for astaxanthin biosynthesis in A. The red varieties of pepper accumulate two ketoxanthophylls, capsanthin and capsorubin, which account for the red color of the fruit.

A single bifunctional enzyme, capsanthin-capsorubin synthase, was shown to be responsible for converting antheraxanthin to capsanthin, and violaxanthin to capsorubin [10]. Carotenoid accumulation occurs in most plant tissues, including green shoots, flowers, fruits, seeds and roots. Although the contents and types of carotenoids of green tissues are relatively conserved across most plant species, the levels of carotenoids and their profiles in nongreen tissues, such as flowers, fruits and seeds, vary considerably, and are influenced by many factors, including the developmental stage, environment, stress or a combination of these [1].

In general, the steady-state levels of carotenoids are determined by the rate of biosynthesis, storage capacity of the cell and the rate of catabolism and degradation.

Combined, these factors have made the study of carotenoid regulation challenging. We also briefly discuss how knowledge of these important steps has been used in the metabolic engineering of carotenoid biosynthesis in plants. The ability of the cell to sequester carotenoids and the rate of carotenoid catabolism will also be discussed as additional factors used to determine the levels of carotenoids.

The fact that the first reaction in the MEP pathway is catalyzed by the DXS enzyme makes it a presumptive regulatory step in carotenoid biosynthesis. The initial evidence in support of this came from results of overexpressing and silencing of the DXS gene in Arabidopsis seedlings.

In ripening tomato fruits, the abundance of DXS transcript was found to be developmentally regulated, and corresponded to changes in expression of PSY and accumulation of carotenoids [11].

DXS has been exploited in biotechnological applications to improve the carotenoid content of crops. Except for Arabidopsis, most other plant species express multiple functionally redundant copies of phytoene synthase PSY , although different PSY genes appear to be differentially expressed and regulated. At least three PSY homologues are encoded by the maize genome, and the expression of one of them, PSY3 , was induced by salt and drought, and this induction resulted in enhanced carotenoid content.

In Arabidopsis, its single copy PSY gene is tightly regulated by light. A phytochrome-interacting transcription factor, RIF, binds to the PSY promoter and maintains it in a repressed state under dark conditions. Under light conditions, RIF degrades and dissociates from the PSY promoter, thus allowing for its active expression [14]. Another transcription factor, RAP2. PSY is also a limiting factor in carotenoid biosynthesis in the case of Brassica napus , and PSY genes from several species have been used to increase carotenoid levels in plants.

Carotenoid levels increased in vegetative tissues of transgenic tomato plants, and a concomitant dwarf phenotype was observed in the transformants when the PSY gene was constitutively overexpressed.

To overcome this adverse effect, the PSY gene was spatially and temporally expressed which increased the carotenoid content in ripening fruits without such adverse effects. The PSY gene s have also been used to increase the carotenoid contents of staple foods, such as rice. Overexpression of the maize PSY gene resulted in higher carotenoid levels in the rice endosperm [15].

The first step in lycopene biosynthesis is catalyzed by phytoene desaturase PDS. Carotenoid isomerization catalyzed by CRTISO, which isomerizes cis bonds to all- trans lycopene, is another step with regulatory impact on carotenoid biosynthesis.

This enzyme catalyzes the methylation of chromatin histones, and when the expression of SDG8 gene was disrupted, it caused a reduction in the levels of CRTISO transcript and carotenoid content [16].

In addition, Arabidopsis plants with reduced SDG8 expression showed altered shoot and root branching, which were possibly caused by changes in levels of branch-inhibiting strigolactone hormones that are derived from carotenoid catabolism products [2].

This was the first report on epigenetic regulation of carotenoid biosynthesis; this breakthrough has the potential to open new avenues for engineering of carotenoids in plants. The carotenoid biosynthesis pathway branches after the formation of lycopene. In their study, Harjes et al. In addition to the rate of carotenoid biosynthesis, other factors, such as sequestration and availability of storage compartments, play a significant role in determining levels of carotenoid accumulation.

Even though carotenoid biosynthetic enzymes are nuclear-encoded, they are all located in the plastids, where carotenoids are synthesized and accumulated. In chloroplasts, most carotenoids accumulate in the form of chlorophyll—carotenoid—protein complexes in the thylakoid membranes associated with light-harvesting antenna.

Seed carotenoids are compartmentalized to elaioplasts lipid-storing plastids , which use specialized lipoprotein-sequestering structures to store large quantities of carotenoids [1]. In chromoplasts, significant amounts of carotenoids may be stored in membranes, oil bodies or other crystalline structures within the stroma [1,4]. Reports in the literature have shown cases where enhanced carotenoid accumulation was accompanied by changes in the anatomical structure of plastids, resulting in enhanced ability to store carotenoids [22].

For example, a mutation in Brassica oleracea Orange Or gene resulted in enhanced carotenoid content in the curds, but no significant change was detected in the expression of the major carotenogenic genes [22].

He also did further graduate research and taught exercise physiology at the University of Florida. John worked in the dietary and sports supplement industry researching and developing sports and weight loss supplements for the better part of the past 8 years and he still consults supplement companies on formula and product development.

He spent 3 years as a varsity strength and conditioning coach ice hockey at the University of Guelph. John has also trained with a world class power lifting team. He also keeps close ties with colleagues in the biomechanics field. This is how he stays up to date on the latest research in biomechanics and human movement science in general. His first job was Research Analyst at a small supplement company. He spent good chunk of his career traveling around the world and attending major scientific conferences as a sponsor.

Currently he is focusing on helping guys lose fat and build muscle while having as simple approach as they can, his goal is to show them how to get and stay in shape without being constantly under stress and without being obsessive-compulsive with it. Brad was studying Aerospace Engineering at a North Caroline State University, so when he says that getting in shape is not rocket science, he really knows what he is saying.

Vaclav Gregor is a former hard-gainer, fitness writer and a senior member of the Adonis Lifestyle team. The activation of estrogren receptors around the female skeletal tissue causes gynoid fat to be deposited in the breasts, buttocks, hips and thighs, producing an overall typical female body shape. Sexual ornaments are considered attractive features as they are thought to indicate high mate value, fertility, [] and the ability to provide good care to offspring.

They are sexually selected traits present for the purpose of honest signalling and capturing the visual attention of the opposite sex, most commonly associated with females capturing the visual attention of males.

It has been proposed that these ornaments have evolved in order to advertise personal quality and reproductive value. The evolution of these ornaments is also associated with female-female competition in order to gain material benefits provided by resourceful and high status males.

It is thought that this is associated with the long-term pair bonding humans engage in; human females engage in extended sexual activity outside of their fertile period. In other animal species, even other primate species, these advertisements of reproductive value are not permanent. Usually, it is the point at which the female is at her most fertile, she displays sexual swellings. Adolescence is the period of time whereby humans experience puberty , and experience anatomical changes to their bodies through the increase of sex hormones released in the body.

Adolescent exaggeration is the period of time at which sexual ornaments are maximised, and peak gynoid fat content is reached. Female breasts develop at this stage not only to prepare for reproduction, but also due to competition with other females in displaying their reproductive value and quality to males. For both men and women, there appear to be universal criteria of attractiveness both within and across cultures and ethnic groups. Some evolutionary psychologists, including David Buss, have argued that this long-term relationship difference may be a consequence of ancestral humans who selected partners based on secondary sexual characteristics , as well as general indicators of fitness which allowed for greater reproductive success as a result of higher fertility in those partners, [] although a male's ability to provide resources for offspring was likely signaled less by physical features.

Studies have shown that women pay greater attention to physical traits than they do directly to earning capability or potential to commit, [] including muscularity, fitness and masculinity of features; the latter preference was observed to vary during a woman's period, with women preferring more masculine features during the late-follicular fertile phase of the menstrual cycle.

Heterosexual men were only aroused by women. This study verified arousal in the test subjects by connecting them to brain imaging devices.

Bonnie Adrian's book, Framing the Bride , discusses the emphasis Taiwanese brides place on physical attractiveness for their wedding photographs.

Globalization and western ideals of beauty have spread and have become more prevalent in Asian societies where brides go through hours of hair and makeup to "transform everyday women with their individual characteristics into generic look-alike beauties in three hours' time.

According to strategic pluralism theory, men may have correspondingly evolved to pursue reproductive strategies that are contingent on their own physical attractiveness. More physically attractive men accrue reproductive benefits from spending more time seeking multiple mating partners and relatively less time investing in offspring.

In contrast, the reproductive effort of physically less attractive men, who therefore will not have the same mating opportunities, is better allocated either to investing heavily in accruing resources, or investing in their mates and offspring and spending relatively less time seeking additional mates. Several studies have suggested that people are generally attracted to people who look like them , [] and they generally evaluate faces that exhibit features of their own ethnic or racial group as being more attractive.

However, this effect can be reversed. This might depend on how attractiveness is conceptualized: Again, findings are more ambiguous when looking for the desiring, pleasure related component of attractiveness. A study by R. Hall in , which examined determinations of physical attractiveness by having subjects look at the faces of women, found that race was sometimes a factor in these evaluations. Perceptions of physical attractiveness contribute to generalized assumptions based on those attractions.

Individuals assume that when someone is beautiful, then they have many other positive attributes that make the attractive person more likeable. This could lead to a self-fulfilling prophecy , as, from a young age, attractive people receive more attention that helps them develop these characteristics. It was explained that people pay closer attention to those they find physically beautiful or attractive, and thus perceiving attractive individuals with greater distinctive accuracy.

The study believes this accuracy to be subjective to the eye of the beholder. Even though connections and confounds with other variables could not be excluded, the effects of attractiveness in this study were the same size as the ones for other demographic variables.

In developed western societies, women tend to be judged for their physical appearance over their other qualities and the pressure to engage in beauty work is much higher for women than men. However, attractiveness varies by society; in ancient China foot binding was practiced by confining young girls' feet in tightly bound shoes to prevent the feet from growing to normal size causing the women to have an attractive "lotus gait".

In England, women used to wear corsets that severely constricted their breathing and damaged vital internal organs, in order to achieve a visual effect of an exaggeratedly low waist-to-hip ratio. People make judgments of physical attractiveness based on what they see, but also on what they know about the person. Specifically, perceptions of beauty are malleable such that information about the person's personality traits can influence one's assessment of another person's physical beauty.

A study had participants first rate pictures for attractiveness. After doing distracting math problems, participants saw the pictures again, but with information about the person's personality. When participants learned that a person had positive personality characteristics e. This was true for both females and males.

A person may be perceived as being more attractive if they are seen as part of a group of friends, rather than alone, according to one study. Physical attractiveness can have various effects. A survey conducted by London Guildhall University of 11, people showed that those who subjectively describe themselves as physically attractive earn more income than others who would describe themselves as less attractive.

According to further research done on the correlation between looks and earnings in men, the punishment for unattractiveness is greater than the benefits of being attractive.

However, in women the punishment is found to be equal to the benefits. Differences in income due to attractiveness was much more pronounced for men rather than women, and held true for all ranges of income. One writer speculated that "the distress created in women by the spread of unattainable ideals of female beauty" might possibly be linked to increasing incidence of depression.

Many have asserted that certain advantages tend to come to those who are perceived as being more attractive, including the ability to get better jobs and promotions; receiving better treatment from authorities and the legal system ; having more choices in romantic or platonic partners and, therefore, more power in relationships; and marrying into families with more money. Also, attractive individuals behave more positively than those who are unattractive. They also consider these students to be more popular.

This is also known as the halo effect. Research suggests that those who are physically attractive are thought to have more socially desirable personalities and lead better lives in general. Some researchers conclude that little difference exists between men and women in terms of sexual behavior. They are also prone to infidelity and are more likely to have open relationships. Therefore, their physical characteristics are most likely to be inherited by future generations.

Concern for improving physical attractiveness has led many persons to consider alternatives such as cosmetic surgery. It has led scientists working with related disciplines such as computer imaging and mathematics to conduct research to suggest ways to surgically alter the distances between facial features in order to make a face conform more closely to the "agreed-upon standards of attractiveness" of an ideal face by using algorithms to suggest an alternative which still resembles the current face.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Venus de Milo at the Louvre has been described as a "classical vision of beauty". Heterozygote advantage and Major histocompatibility complex and sexual selection.

Age disparity in sexual relationships. Cultural history of the buttocks. Retrieved August 5, The New York Times. That lady of renowned beauty The classical vision of beauty exemplified in Greek art, such as the 2nd century B. Venus de Milo a. Aphrodite of Milos , was an ideal carried through millennia, laying the basis for much of Western art's depictions of the human form.

American Journal of Archaeology. Illustrated Dictionary of Mythology. Biblical and Near Eastern Essays: Studies in Honour of Kevin J. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Evolutionary approaches to health perception.

In Sheppard E, Haque S. A Collection of Critical Essays. Peter Lang International Publishers. Retrieved July 15, Evolutionary psychologists claim there is an underlying standard script for beauty — a foundation for what we find appealing that transcends culture and ethnicity. There are various absolutes. For instance, to judge someone beautiful, the eye requires symmetry. Archives of Sexual Behavior. Helen's face is said to have launched a thousand ships, while Medusa's could turn men to stone.

And even today we talk about individuals with "a face that can stop a clock. Archived from the original on November 10, Symmetry is one trait we find attractive but only if the face is right-side up: Art historians, anthropologists and human psychologists in general agree that it is the symmetry of a face, its perfect proportion, or indeed its averageness — where no feature stands out — that has consistently down the ages been deemed attractive.

The beauty in imperfection". Retrieved December 27, Absolute flawlessness, it's long been observed, is disturbing.

It offers no point of connection, and may help explain the "uncanny valley" effect, where almost-lifelike robots trigger revulsion in humans. Evolution taught us to lust after symmetry — a nicely balanced body and face — because asymmetry signals past illness or injury. We therefore define beauty quite elegantly, right down to the most ideal ratio of hips to breasts and upper lip to lower lip. Singh says one study showed that people were able to gauge beauty at a subliminal level, when shown pictures for a mere one-hundredth of a second.

Another study showed babies prefer pretty faces. Journal of Experimental Psychology. Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts. Evidence from an fMRI study".

Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience. Retrieved June 12, Annual Review of Psychology. Retrieved November 4, American Journal of Human Biology. Journal of Endocrinological Investigation. The contribution of masculine face shape to male attractiveness in humans".

Men and Masculinities in Contemporary China. Power and Masculinity in Chinese Culture. Hong Kong University Press. Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology. The Psychology and Biology of Beauty". Archived from the original on January 13, Retrieved January 20, Evolution and Human Behavior.

Lay summary — BBC News. Retrieved January 19, The research once again confirms a hypothesis that beauty is not merely in the eye of the beholder: From a choice of computer-generated faces, volunteers routinely choose the most symmetrical as the most attractive. Physical symmetry is interpreted as a sign of good inheritance.

And therefore, the theory goes, women in a position to conceive would be more attracted to someone more likely to engender the healthiest offspring. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior. Retrieved March 4, Survival of the Prettiest: The Science of Beauty. Archived from the original on March 9, Retrieved July 25, I can taste your DNA". Previous studies in animals and humans show that genes in the major histocompatibility complex MHC influence individual odours and that females often prefer odour of MHC-dissimilar males, perhaps to increase offspring heterozygosity or reduce inbreeding.

Women using oral hormonal contraceptives have been reported to have the opposite preference, raising the possibility that oral contraceptives alter female preference towards MHC similarity, with possible fertility costs.

Retrieved April 28, The Effects of Age and Masculinity-Femininity". Journal of Social and Personal Relationships. International Journal of Men's Health. Getting more female attention. Social Behavior and Personalit.

A replication and extension" PDF. Personality and Individual Differences. Archived from the original PDF on March 28, Role of waist-to-hip ratio and financial status". The American body in context: A look at gay and lesbian online dating profiles".

Gay men's perceptions of penis size". Retrieved December 15, Retrieved April 3, Size does not matter when Hadza foragers are choosing a mate". Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution. Retrieved October 15, The Evolution of Desire second ed. Biological perspectives on human pigmentation.

The Law of Skin Color. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences. International Journal of Primatology. The Evolutionary Psychology of Sexual Harassment". Managerial and Decision Economics. A psychologist looks at sexual attraction and what it means for humankind.

The New York Times: Physical appearance and gender: State University of New York Press. Beautiful faces have Miss Average proportions".

Retrieved July 31, All were head shots of the same person with different distances from eyes to mouth or between the eyes. She was at her most attractive when the space between her pupils was just under half, or 46 per cent, of the width of her face from ear to ear. The other perfect dimension was when the distance between her eyes and mouth was just over a third, or 36 per cent, of the overall length of her face from hairline to chin.

Exploring Contemporary Japanese Body Aesthetics. University of California Press.

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