All other orders received on Tuesday or later will ship Monday, Sept. Since no hazard has been noted from eating such a diet, we can conclude that plant enzymes represent no source of harm. Animal Welfare Information Center Newsletter, 4 , , While modern reptiles are predominantly carnivorous, during the early history of reptiles several groups produced some herbivorous megafauna: Turtles have two or more accessory urinary bladders, located lateral to the neck of the urinary bladder and dorsal to the pubis, occupying a significant portion of their body cavity. Live Feeders Price List London: Digestion is not only impaired by improper heat requirements, but lack of hydration can also have adverse effects on digestion as well.
A, koilin, B, crypts, C, glands that secrete koilin, D, epithelial surface, E, desquamated epithelial cells, 2 Mucosa of the gizzard. A, koilin, B, secretion in gland lumens and crypts, and 3 Koilin layer. A, secretion column, B, koilin-layer surface, C, horizontal stripe indicating a 'pause' in secretion of the koilin, D, cellular debris. Eglitis and Knouff Vultures of the seas -- Animals are primarily limited by their capacity to acquire food, yet digestive performance also conditions energy acquisition, and ultimately fitness.
Optimal foraging theory predicts that organisms feeding on patchy resources should maximize their food loads within each patch, and should digest these loads quickly to minimize travelling costs between food patches. GPS-tracking of 40 Wandering Albatrosses from the Crozet archipelago during the incubation phase confirmed foraging movements of between — km, giving the birds access to a variety of prey, including fishery wastes.
Using miniaturized, autonomous data recorders placed in the stomach of three birds, the first-ever measurements of gastric pH and temperature in procellariformes were obtained. Such low stomach pH gives Wandering Albatrosses a strategic advantage because it allows a rapid chemical breakdown of ingested food and rapid digestion.
This is useful for feeding on patchy, natural prey, but also on fishery wastes, which might be an important additional food resource for Wandering Albatrosses. It is likely that this physiological characteristic evolved as a response to a diet largely composed of squid, and to a patchy distribution of this food resource resulting in large, infrequent meals. The strategy of Wandering Albatrosses is to cover long distances rapidly and at low costs to increase the probability of encountering dispersed prey patches whose distribution is unpredictable.
Knots with large gizzards consumed far more molluscs with shells than the birds with smaller gizzards. Birds with smaller gizzards simply couldn't feed fast enough. By allowing them to crush more shell per gizzard-full, larger gizzards gave birds the edge. Thus, even though it is energetically costly for the knots to maintain a larger gizzard, when the bird needs to get the most out of its crunchy diet, it's a price worth paying.
So, the birds' gizzards enlarge as they fatten for migration. Because the molluscs' shells stay the same size as the molluscs shrink, the amount of shell a bird must process to eat its fill also increases. But with their larger gizzards, the birds can still make the most of even the crunchiest winter diet! Within 14 days, they showed a doubling of the size of their gizzards.
Red Knots have strong muscular gizzards for feeding on molluscs. A shift back to a mussel diet induced about a doubling in gizzard mass in just a few days. As the knots were fed progessively smaller mussels day 22 to day 46 that are easier to crush, gizzard mass again declined.
A switch back to a soft food pellet diet caused a further decline in gizzard mass. Finally, a switch back to a mussel diet again cause a rapid increase in gizzard mass From: Piersma and Drent Ostrich Struthio camelus stomach. Note how particle size of material in the gizzard ventriculus is smaller than in the proventriculus due to the grinding action of the muscular walls plus small pebbles gastroliths. The capacity to reduce particle size is related to the metabolic demands of a species.
Therefore, particle size reduction is often considered the key digestive difference between ecto- and endotherms that allows endotherms to rely on shorter digesta retention times without losing digestive efficiency, and hence facilitate the high level of food intake necessary to meet their increased metabolic requirements.
In contrast, adaptations for chewing intrinsically increase the weight of the head. The use of the gizzard system has the potential advantages that intake rate is not limited by chewing, that no investment in dental tissue is necessary, and that dental wear is not a determinant of senescence as observed in mammals.
The absence of age-dependent tooth wear might even be a contributing factor to the slower onset of senescence in birds as compared to mammals. On the other hand, the use of a gizzard requires the intake of suitable grit or stones—an action that represents, in the few studies where this has actually been quantified in birds, a relevant proportion of feeding time Fritz et al. Gastrointestinal tracts of a carnivorous hawk, an omnivorous chicken, and 4 herbivorous birds.
Note larger size of crop in omnivore and herbivores, and particularly in hoatzin. Ceca are small in hawks and relatively large in grouse. Although ceca are relatively small in Hoatzins , Emus, and Ostriches, an expanded foregut Hoatzins , a much longer midgut Emus , or a much longer colon Ostriches compensates for this From: Stevens and Hume Over-reliance on the passive pathway provides metabolic advantages and ecological constraints.
It does provide birds with an absorptive process that can deal with rapid and large changes in intestinal sugar concentrations. The passive pathway is also energetically inexpensive to maintain and modulate. However, passive absorption through the paracellular pathway is dependent on concentration gradients. In the absence of a transport system that selects which materials to absorb, this non-discriminatory pathway may also increase vulnerability to toxins, and thus constrain foraging behavior and limit the breadth of the dietary niche of the birds.
Another problem is that when luminal sugar concentrations are lower than those in plasma, glucose may diffuse back into the lumen. Cross-section of the intestine ileum of a Spotted Tinamou Nothura maculosa.
Villi are lined with columnar epithelium EP , including goblet cells arrows that secrete mucus. The muscle layer includes longitudinal fibers MI on the perimeter, circular fibers Mc , and additional longitudinal fibers at the base of the villi muscularis muscosae; MM From: Chikilian and de Speroni Blue-headed Parrots at clay lick. Meyer-Rochow and Gal determined that the pressures involved could be approximated if they knew the 1 distance the feces traveled, 2 density and viscosity of the material, and 3 shape, aperture, and height of the anus above ground.
How penguins choose the direction of defecation, and how wind direction factors into that decision, remain unknown. Avian Pancreas tissue Source: The Avian Digestive Tract. Avian geophagy and soil characteristics in southeastern Peru.
Luminal morphology of the avian lower intestine: Histological aspects of the stomach proventriculus and gizzard of the Red-capped Cardinal Paroaria gularis gularis. Comparative study of the digestive system of three species of tinamou. Crypturellus tataupa, Nothoprocta cinerascens , and Nothura maculosa Aves: Journal of Morphology Journal of Experimental Zoology Rictal bristle function in Willow Flycatcher.
Dysplastic koilin causing proventricular obstruction in an Eclectus Parrot Eclectus roratus. Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery Anatomy and physiology of the digestive system in fowl. Pages in Proc. An histological and histochemical analysis of the inner lining and glandular epithelium of the chicken gizzard. American Journal of Anatomy An ecomorphological study of the raptorial digital tendon locking mechanism. Dietary and developmental regulation of intestinal sugar transport. Digesta retention patterns in geese Anser anser and turkeys Meleagris gallopavo and deduced function of avian caeca.
Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology A Histological and global gene expression analysis of the 'lactating' pigeon crop. Vultures of the seas: Evolution of the structure and function of the vertebrate tongue. Journal of Anatomy Light and scanning electron microscopic study of the tongue in the cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo Phalacrocoracidae, Aves. Functional morphology of the tongue in the nutcracker Nucifraga caryocatactes.
A tropical horde of counterfeit predator eyes. Instructed learning in the auditory localization pathway of the Barn Owl. The morphology of the bill apparatus in the Steller's Sea Eagle. Wild Bird Society of Japan, Tokyo. Use of dung as a tool by burrowing owls. The integration of energy and nitrogen balance in the hummingbird Sephanoides sephaniodes. Does gut function limit hummingbird food intake?
Physiological and Biochemical Zoology Pressures produced when penguins pooh—calculations on avian defaecation. Scare tactics in a neotropical warbler: Gliding flight and soaring. Theoretical Ecology Series, vol. Modelling the flying bird C.
Structure, form, and function of flight in engineering and the living world. Phenotypic flexibility and the evolution of organismal design. Trends in Ecology and Evolution The hummingbird tongue is a fluid trap, not a capillary tube.
Between air and water: Use of prey hotspots by an avian predator: Structure and mechanical behavior of a toucan beak. Movement and direction of movement of a simulated prey affect the success rate in Barn Owl Tyto alba attack.
Musculoskeletal underpinnings to differences in killing behavior between North American accipiters Falconiformes: Accipitridae and falcons Falconidae. Journal of Morphology, online early. Le Bohec, and Y. Adjustments of gastric pH, motility and temperature during long-term preservation of stomach contents in free-ranging incubating King Penguins.
Journal of Experimental Biology A tough nut to crack. Adaptations to seed cracking in finches. Cost-benefit analysis of mollusc-eating in a shorebird. Optimizing gizzard size in the face of seasonal demands. How do woodpeckers extract grubs with their tongues? Why do woodpeckers resist head impact injury: Functional morphology of raptor hindlimbs: The turning- and linear-maneuvering performance of birds: Canadian Journal of Zoology Hummingbird jaw bends to aid insect capture.
A mechanical analysis of woodpecker drumming and its application to shock-absorbing systems. I - Introduction to Birds. VII - Circulatory System. Back to Avian Biology. Drawings of the digestive tracts of A a Greylag Goose and B a Wild Turkey and retention times of a solute, 2-mm particles, and 8-mm particles in the goose and turkey digestive systems Figure from Frei et al.
The closed, air-filled spaces reduce overall weight without loss of rigidity. The capillary ratchet mechanism Surface tension transport of prey by feeding shorebirds: The serrated leading-edge feather of an owl Norberg Vortex generators on an airplane wing. Fish-eating species like cormorants below - typically have small, undifferentiated tongue because fish are often swallowed whole. Representative caterpillar false eyes and faces.
In some, like woodpeckers, the 'sticky' saliva aids in capturing prey. In others, like swifts, saliva is used in nest building see photo below. The muscular walls of the esophagus produce wave-like contractions peristalsis that help propel food from the oral cavity to the stomach.
Anhinga swallowing a large fish. HCL and pepsinogen are secreted by the deep glands see photomicrograph below. Pepsinogen is converted into pepsin a proteolytic, or protein-digesting, enzyme by the HCl. The cuticle is secreted by simple tubular glands see photomicrograph below.
Grinding action may, particularly in seed-eating birds, be assisted by grit and stones deliberately ingested. The avian gastrointestinal tract, unlike that of mammals, executes distinct reverse peristaltic movements that are critical to optimal digestive function Duke The gastric reflux allows material in the gizzard to reenter the proventriculus for additional treatment with acid and pepsin.
The lamp provides a heat source through a full-spectrum bulb during the daytime and a red frosted bulb or a "blacklight" bulb for night. The light in these nighttime bulbs cannot be seen by your pet though you can still see it , so they think it's dark out. Ceramic heating elements Ceramic heating elements do not provide light but produce a lot of heat.
They screw into a fixture just like a light bulb but due to the extreme heat must only be used in a fixture with a ceramic socket. This fixture can be mounted on top of terrarium in a manner similar to a basking lamp.
Under tank heaters Under tank heat sources such as heating pads or tapes are a good choice for supplementing heat provided by a basking light or to provide heat at night. Hot rocks Hot rocks should generally be avoided as they can get quite warm or even have hot spots. They don't help with heating the whole terrarium and can burn a reptile resting on one, causing injury and sometimes even death. With newer technology today, there are hot rocks available that have been developed to prevent the problems of over-heating and hot spots.
They have controlled heating elements for setting the desired temperature and thermal conductive resins that cover the stone for even heat distribution. However, these thermal controlled hot rocks still provide heat only on the rock, so they don't solve the problem of adequately heating the whole terrarium, and as such are not suitable for large lizards or snakes. These specialty bulbs are available through pet stores that sell reptiles. Incandescent bulbs A full-spectrum incandescent bulb provides heat as well as light.
These can be mounted as a basking lamp. They are fine for many lizards, but for lizards that require natural sunlight, it is not adequate. These must have fluorescent lighting. Fluorescent bulbs A full-spectrum fluorescent bulb provides a sunlight replacement for those pets that need full-spectrum lighting. Not all require this, but those that do will be at risk if they don't get it.
These include many diurnal, or day-time active lizards and tortoises. Of course, natural sunlight is the best source of full-spectrum lighting. Flooring Covering There are a variety of floor coverings that can be used for your pet, but they all have their own considerations. One of the primary considerations in choosing floor coverings is cleanliness. Be wary of harmful micro-organisms.
Reptile cage carpets Reptile cage carpets are often an ideal floor covering. They are made for your pet, not for human floors, so they are not abrasive to your pets skin. They are also easy to remove and clean. Household carpets are not made for reptiles, they are chemically treated and are designed for abrasion.
Reptile sand Sand is sometimes used, but it tends to cling to herptiles feet and to get into their food. It can be very harmful if it is ingested. Gravel is a better choice, but should be washed and disinfected. There is a calcium sand available that is said to be digestible, however is should be used with caution as impaction problems have been said to occur with some herps. Other substrates Other options are shredded barks and packaged peat mosses, but be mindful of cleanliness.
Cage Decor Cage decor is very important for your pet. It provides their sense of security through shelters and camouflaging. It also includes maintenance things, like food and water dishes and heating devices. Some standard decor items are rocks, basking limbs and plants. Wash everything you put in. Sand or logs that you collect from outside needs to be cleaned and bleached or sterilized in a slow oven degrees to degrees for two to three hours.
Wood limbs and rocks are very natural additions, but make sure they don't have any sharp parts that can injure your pet. Limbs can be sealed with polyurethane varnish to prevent places for parasites to live. These can be used in dry land or aquatic terrariums.
Aquarium plants, such as elodea anacharis , can do well in aquatic terrariums. Herptile Cage Care Cage maintenance is an important part of keeping reptiles and amphibians healthy, and long-lived.
With most herptiles being kept in a confined area as pets, they need to be protected from harmful micro-organisms and parasites. The reptile cage also needs daily and weekly maintenance. Things you will need to do for your herps home include:.
Herptile Diet Types and Foods Whether you are keeping reptiles or amphibians, the diet varies with each animal. Yet each herptile has primarily one of three types of diets.
Some herps are carnivores - a meat or protein eater, others are herbivores - a plant eater or omnivores - which are animals that eat both plants and proteins.
Carnivores Herptiles that are carnivores eat proteins such as rodents, insects and invertebrates. Other proteins include guppies, goldfish, eggs, and some birds.
Some even eat other herptiles, for example a snake will eat a frog and a large lizard will eat a small lizard. Some of the rodents herps will eat include mice, rats, pinkies and fuzzies terms for baby and juvenile mice and rats , rabbits and chickens. These proteins form the basis of many snakes and some lizards diets.
They can be fed live or purchased frozen and completely defrosted before feeding. Be cautious when feeding live adult rats. Snakes that do not feed immediately on an adult rat run the risk of being bitten by a loose rat, and can be severely damaged. Reptile foods for carnivores include: Crickets The most currently fed insects include crickets, which can be purchased in a variety of sizes to fit the herptile you are feeding.
Mealworms Another is mealworms. These are not really worms, but the larval state of the flour beetle. They are low in calcium, and so should be coated with a calcium supplement. The vet gave her antidiarrheal meds for 10 days and it finally went away. Meanwhile, she was still on only chicken and rice. After several days with nodiarrhea, I tried to give her a little Diamond Puppy again mixed in with chicken and rice and it started to come back again.
I came across your cooked dog food recipe. I ordered Dinovite and Licochops. Before making the full recipe, I gave her a little Dinovite in her chicken and rice for the past 3 days. Her diarrhea is back. I also caught her trying to eat her poop again. Not sure if there is something in the Dinovite that makes her want to eat her poop. I am currently making your cooked dog food recipe, but want to know your opinion on how to proceed since she will be starting while she already has some intestinal upset.
Other than the diarrhea , she is acting happy and healthy. Is her diarrhea watery or is she just having frequent softer stools?
I would try her on the chicken and rice dog food recipe or the easy cooked dog food recipe and follow the introductory methods. Then give her system time to adjust. She loves sweets and breads.
She constantly has stomach issues. I give her a puppy multivitamin and she eats grass daily. She gets treats that have no artificial flavors, colors or preserves.
What I want to know is if there is anything else I can do to help her with the stomach issues. Any info would be greatly appreciated. Try the easy cooked dog food recipe or the chicken and rice dog food recipe and see how she does.
I have a MinPin, Grace, whom is 2 years old. She is absolutely our baby. Sometime in November, I was cutting the red ring off of our bologna. I laid the small ring of paper on my table, and Grace ate the red paper. I have not seen her poop out the paper. Can she actually digest this paper or should I take her to the vet? I certainly do not want her to go through surgery, yet, I cannot stand to lose her.
I would appreciate any comment, as I am very concerned about my Grace. Hi — Thank you very much for your informative website. My husband and I own an 8. He has always been very healthy. I changed him to a home cooked diet of cooked chicken breast; brown rice and sweet potato. He loves the food; but was losing a lot of weight.
I found your website about 2 weeks ago and substituted the rice for white potato in addition to adding hard boiled eggs. He is currently on Omega supplements; however his Vet recommended to supplement safflower oil for fat — I see that you recommend extra virgin coconut oil. Although his weight is still in the healthy range; he has gone from 75 lbs to 65 lbs in the past 3 months since the diet change.
His recent bloodwork is excellent and energy level is good — I just feel like he is very thin. I am concerned about giving him the right fats. Try adding the Supromega fish oil or Lickochops , both are great fat sources. Virgin coconut oil also does not stress the pancreas. Dear Ed what do you reccomend for a dog who has a high ph of 6 and is not producing enough acid on her own to keep from getting sturitve stones and is getting constant bladder infections she has gone through surgery to remove the stones and is a special deit of royal canin urinary so wet and dry and for six months was given a clean bill of health by her vet but now she has and infection again and crystals im being told by her vet that its time to possibles start her on a monthy antiboitic treat meant to hopefully get her system back on track which im really concerned about.
Neither have any known health problems and no skin issues. Can I start her on the raw diet right after that? Yes, cats can eat a raw diet safely just eliminate all the carbs because they have no use for them at all. I started him on a grain free kibble and mixed in raw meat with his food , enzymes a other supplements and for 4 years he has been fine. I do know that kibble and raw digest at different rate.
I give him beef heart, tongue and liver. He has recovered nicely and became my service dog now at 9 I am training another and he is now in semi retirement he will never fully retire until he passes on.
Lately he has not been very good at eating his meals oh he is feed twice a day half in the a. GSD are prone to bloat. He will eat if I give him some of what I am eating and he will eat the raw meat alone so my question what to do about feeding a raw diet. I have 4 dogs and with the constant increase in meat prices it is hard to put all on a raw only diet. When you feed a raw meat and bones based diet bloat is not a problem.
This is because the raw maenad bonds not swell like kibble. Currently I am feeding my dogs raw chicken leg and thigh quarters. I grind them using the meat grinder I show on this site because both my dogs are missing teeth. The chicken is 69 cents per pound. You must be logged in to post a comment. My name is Ed Lukacevic and I'm an incurable animal lover! I have spent my life working with birds, reptiles, horses and especially dogs.
Optimum nutrition for the animals in my care has been my passion. March 19, at 9: What about corn on the cob? Log in to Reply. Darcy, Can you tell me what you are feeding your dog? April 1, at 4: April 2, at 8: Marie, Dogs can eat the vegetables but not digest them well. May 27, at 8: May 29, at 3: Christa, You may want to try the yeast starvation dog food recipe. February 4, at 9: February 5, at Natasha, Try feeding the chicken and rice dog food recipe , substitute sweet potato for the white rice.
July 4, at 1: July 5, at 4: Chris, Are you feeding the easy cooked dog food recipe? July 5, at 6: July 16, at 4: Chris, Just keep it up and see how she does. I forgot to mention that we also give her krill oil supplements as well. July 28, at 4: July 31, at 1: August 5, at 7: August 5, at 8: Carolyn, Sounds like a good idea but brace yourself for negative feedback.
September 5, at 1: July 30, at Grace, Dogs are easy vomiters. What is she eating now? August 22, at