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What about my resveratrol from grapes? PDK is a kinase enzyme, and kinases tend to phosphorylate other enzymes. In our coaching research program, we take the most up-to-date science and actually test it with real people to see what works and what doesn't work. Here's what that package contains. Thanks for stopping by! I found the juice in the vegan section of the grocery store. Benefits of Increased Blood Circulation.

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If you seek a second opinion, breastcancer. You have the right to talk to your doctor with respect and mutual understanding and receive the same in turn. Ultimately, every step to recovery depends upon you.

But there are things you can do to help offset those side effects. The breasts of a female typically hide the pectoral muscles. A second pectoral muscle, the pectoralis minor, lies beneath the pectoralis major. The pectorals are predominantly used to control the movement of the arm, with the contractions of the pectoralis major pulling on the humerus to create lateral, vertical, or rotational motion.

The pectorals also play a part in deep inhalation, pulling the ribcage to create room for the lungs to expand. Six separate sets of muscle fiber have been identified within the pectoralis major muscle, allowing portions of the muscle to be moved independently by the nervous system.

There are several surgical options for breast cancer. A lumpectomy is the targeted surgical removal of affected or vulnerable cells. This procedure has been proven as effective as mastectomy in preventing the spread of early-stage cancer. This procedure is done prophylactically — to prevent cancer from metastasizing spreading.

This type of mastectomy is done for those who intend to have immediate breast reconstructive surgery. This makes reconstruction easier and avoids making any scars on the breast, allowing for better results after breast reconstruction.

In the event cancer is found under the nipple and areola, the nipple must be removed. Reconstruction of the breast is completed at the same time with either an implant or natural tissue. This type of mastectomy is like a skin sparing mastectomy. A MRM is a variation of the total mastectomy, which removes the entire breast including the lymph nodes under the arm called an axillary lymph node dissection while sparing the pectoralis major muscle. For many years, this was the breast cancer operation used most often, but it is used rarely now.

Doctors consider radical mastectomy only when the tumor has spread to the chest muscles. According to the National Cancer Institute, two kinds of surgery can be performed to reduce the risk of breast cancer in a woman who has never been diagnosed with breast cancer but is known to be at very high risk of the disease.

The most common risk-reducing surgery is bilateral prophylactic mastectomy also called bilateral risk-reducing mastectomy. Bilateral prophylactic mastectomy may involve complete removal of both breasts, including the nipples total mastectomy , or it may involve removal of as much breast tissue as possible while leaving the nipples intact subcutaneous or nipple-sparing mastectomy. Subcutaneous mastectomies preserve the nipple and allow for more natural-looking breasts if a woman chooses to have breast reconstruction surgery afterward.

However, total mastectomy provides the greatest breast cancer risk reduction because more breast tissue is removed in this procedure than in a subcutaneous mastectomy. Even with total mastectomy, not all breast tissue that may be at risk of becoming cancerous in the future can be removed. The chest wall, which is not typically removed during a mastectomy, may contain some breast tissue, and breast tissue can sometimes be found in the armpit, above the collarbone, and as far down as the abdomen — and it is impossible for a surgeon to remove all this tissue.

The other kind of risk-reducing surgery is bilateral prophylactic salpingo-oophorectomy, which is sometimes called prophylactic oophorectomy. This surgery involves removal of the ovaries and fallopian tubes and may be done alone or along with bilateral prophylactic mastectomy in premenopausal women who are at very high risk of breast cancer.

Removing the ovaries in premenopausal women reduces the amount of estrogen that is produced by the body. Because estrogen promotes the growth of some breast cancers, reducing the amount of this hormone in the body by removing the ovaries may slow the growth of those breast cancers. About one in five women who have opted for breast cancer surgery see a return of the disease. However, some women build resistance to the drugs, so researchers at Imperial College London and the European Institute of Oncology in Milan set out to understand why.

They found a particular gene, CYP19A1, becomes amplified. This triggers the increased production of aromatase, the enzyme the drugs were trying to block. This enzyme converts hormones in the body into estrogen.

This allows the cancer cells to make their own estrogen again, reproduce, and spread. The study was published in the peer-reviewed journal, Nature Genetics. This is why we need a test to identify these patients. The laboratory study used human cell samples to investigate the mechanism behind how breast cancer tumors develop resistance to treatments, effectively making them powerless.

Approximately 70 percent of breast cancers are classified as estrogen receptor-positive — where the cancer is fueled by the hormone estrogen. Researchers used samples of human breast cancer tumors from a database containing data on 26, women who had undergone surgery for first primary breast cancer between and The study analyzed tumor samples from women who had experienced a recurrence of breast cancer with metastatic spread to different parts of the body.

Fifty of the women only received aromatase inhibitors after surgery, and 50 only received tamoxifen. Researchers used various genetic analysis methods to extract DNA and manipulate the hormones to learn more about the exact mechanism behind the resistance to treatment. Overall, the researchers found the CYP19A1 gene became amplified and triggered the increased production of aromatase in about one in five women prescribed aromatase inhibitors after surgery.

Because the immune system is what actually fights the cancer cells. Which, these are baby cancer cells that continue to reproduce and become more cancer cells.

The radiation will also do that. But they create a more resistive kind of breast cancer stem cell that will convert into a mature cancer cell that is harder to kill. Because when you take curcumin, for example, then that kills breast cancer stem cells, or broccoli sprouts. The sulforaphane in the broccoli sprouts, that kills breast cancer stem cells.

When you look at your diet, and you know that sugar feeds cancer. Too many acidic foods will defeat the alkalinity of the primary protocol. Work with your vendor on setting up a diet. Your diet plays a role in a healthy immune system. The top vitamins your immune system needs to perform include:. Vitamin D is important for good overall health and strong and healthy bones. It also may hold the key to longer breast cancer survival, according to an analysis published in JAMA Oncology.

Your body can make its own Vitamin D from sunlight. You can also get Vitamin D from supplements and a very small amount comes from a few foods you eat. Severe Vitamin D deficiency can cause rickets in children and osteomalacia in adults. Both of these conditions cause soft, thin, and brittle bones.

The researchers used data from 1, Kaiser Permanante patients, testing their Vitamin D blood levels. Compared with women whose Vitamin D levels were under 17 nanograms per milliliter, women with levels higher than 25 had a 28 percent higher likelihood of surviving during the study, even after adjusting for tumor stage, grade, and type. The effect was stronger for premenopausal women. Those with the highest Vitamin D levels were 55 percent more likely to survive.

Also, they were 42 percent more likely to survive free of invasive disease and 63 percent less likely to die of breast cancer. Our study suggests that Vitamin D may extend survival in women diagnosed with breast cancer. This is a prohormone or precursor for the Vitamin D hormone.

It is released back into the bloodstream where it then regulates how your body uses calcium and phosphorus. Because the liver and the kidneys are involved in the production of calcitriol, diseases of these organs may affect your ability to make this hormone. Active Vitamin D works by entering cells and attaching to a protein called the Vitamin D receptor, located in the nucleus of cells, where the genetic material is located. This combination of calcitriol and its receptor stimulates the cell to make proteins that regulate the way the body works.

Vitamin D receptors also are present in most other tissues, including the brain, heart, skin, ovary and testicle, prostate gland, and breast, as well as the cells of the immune system, including white blood cells and other key immune cells. Vitamin C has been shown to contribute protective properties against breast cancer. Further, studies show that I. Vitamin C has also been shown to improve the quality of life in breast cancer patients both during traditional therapies, and in aftercare.

Howe of the National Cancer Institute of Canada reviewed 12 case-controlled studies of diet and breast cancer and noted that Vitamin C had the most consistent statistically significant relationship to the reduction of breast cancer risk. And, in relation to the importance of mineral and vitamin supplements, a New York Times article quoted Dr.

We need just to admit that on this one, we were wrong. Detailed information on IVC and what it can do for cancer patients: Every breast cancer patient needs to become an expert on hormones, iodine, and cancer. Mike Vrentas — who supports the Cellect-Budwig Protocol for home use, and should support all breast cancer patients who treat their cancer at home — discusses these topics in his lectures. The Cellect-Budwig Protocol is the highly recommended protocol for breast cancer for two reasons. First, it is one of the best alternative cancer treatments on earth.

It starts working quickly, helps shrink tumors, helps reduce pain, etc. The second reason this protocol is selected is that Mike Vrentas is an expert in the protocol he designed. Vrentas is an expert in dealing with advanced breast cancer cases, including large tumors. He also is an expert in dealing with the dental issues facing breast cancer patients and the hormone and iodine issues facing breast cancer cases.

Both the protocol and the telephone support make the choice of this protocol a simple one. This protocol consists of the superb product Cellect, vegetable juicing , laetrile , plenty of sunshine without sun blockers or suntan lotion to get Vitamin D, and other protocols.

A key element of this protocol is the High RF Frequency Generator with Plasma Amplifier, which is an electromedicine device that acts much like a radio tower, meaning it emits a very gentle electrical signal through the air. This device may help with the dental infections, but it will definitely help with any infection in the breasts.

But it is primarily part of the cancer treatment. Thus, it can help both with the cancer treatment — no matter where the cancer is, even if it is in the lymph nodes — and the infection. It is important to use the liver and lymph protocols i. There are several things which conflict with the Cellect, such as coral calcium which provides too much alkalinity with the Cellect , or conflict with the Budwig, such as Vitamin C.

There are recommended treatments to be used with the Cellect-Budwig Protocol. For example, Fucoidan kills cancer cells faster than Cellect-Budwig and is synergistic with Cellect-Budwig. You likely would already own the High RF Frequency Generator with Plasma Amplifier which is part of both the Cellect-Budwig and Plasma-Beck , thus the additional cost for this protocol would be minimal.

The immune system is not only important in warding off cancer, it is also extremely important when you are fighting cancer. Then, if you do indeed get cancer, the immune system is extraordinarily important in fighting the cancer. If you decide to choose a standard recommended treatment, you will need your immune system to be as strong and functional as it can be.

Whether surgery, chemotherapy or radiation or combinations thereof are chosen, recognize that all of these are suppressive and depressive of the immune response. But can killing the cancer also kill the patient, if other supports are not given? That seems to be the question that needs to be addressed. Further, the immune system also plays a role in preventing metastasization. There is now some research being reported in Nature Communications October that normal cell stickiness or adhesion properties are affected by certain molecular interactions and scaffolding, and so the malignant cells become unstuck and move through the system and metastasize.

The race will be on. How to fund your cancer treatment without a loan. No definite risk factors have been found for breast cancer. There are factors may put you at increased risk, including:. Leigh Erin Connealy notes lifestyle changes can reduce not only your risk of breast cancer but of cancer in general, including limiting alcohol intake, spending at least 20 minutes a day in the sun, and building up your good bacteria with a probiotic supplement.

Breast Cancer Prevention Tips. According to integrative medical doctor Sunil Pai, nutrition is key to both the prevention and treatment of illnesses, including cancer. Pai went completely plant-based in his own life in after completing fellowship training with Dr.

Unfortunately, the media plays a large role in how Americans perceive healthy diets, according to Pai. Atkins made about 1. Alright, so the concept was eat all the meat you want, right?

And like cut down, zero carbs. And, everybody had a short-term gain. And then why nobody is still on the diet. It faded away, but then it kind of reinserts itself. Every couple of years it comes back. And then they used to call it Paleo, Neanderthal Man diet, Caveman diet. It causes weight gain and inflammation. Everybody thinks that protein is all that you need in your life. And protein [that] comes from animal proteins also comes from plant proteins.

There are very little to no antioxidants. According to Pai, the ketogenic diet, which is very popular right now due to the prevalence of cancer, is simply the Atkins, Paleo, or Caveman diets repackaged. Pai notes cancer patients may see tumor shrinkage within the first three months on the ketogenic diet. However, this is only due to lowering sugar intake.

When we inject the radioactive tracer then the uptake is 10 times preferentially into the cancer cell than a normal cell. And too much glucose from the excess of the diet, highly refined carbohydrates, can cause the increase of growth.

But again, since most people can only remember one thing, they just blamed all carbs. Where the rest of the world, you go to Europe and all the breads are hard, you got to break it, you got to crack it, you got to cut it with a knife. So by removing that, they got a quick gain.

High animal proteins such as bacon, sausage, and beef are all pro-inflammatory foods, according to Pai. And, studies have shown that although many showed a short-term gain in the beginning on a ketogenic, or Paleo, diet after three months increased inflammation occurred in the body. Because animal protein is pro -inflammatory. Animal proteins are what they call high omega 6s, which are pro-inflammatory.

And so when it comes from plants, plants have more 3s than 6s. It was a special holiday. So in America, we were kind of like the Sunday feast or the game day kind of thing. But in the rest of the week, most people in America [were] mostly living in the 1 percenters. We had a lot of vegetables, sometimes some fish, we had a lot of grains, beans, legumes, and stuff like that. And in fact, some places like, I have this great chart in my book, it shows like what they call the stroke belt: Because the animal protein is super, super cheap due to factory farming.

According to Pai, misinformation and lack of understanding are rife in the United States when it comes to eating a healthy, balanced diet. The three major components of a diet that will actually help to prevent, treat and reverse disease are amino acids, phytonutrients, and fiber.

All foods have all these amino acids in different ratios. So unfortunately, they give gelatin in the hospital, which is a weird thing. Why are you giving me Jell-O? What about bone broth and collagen? So people proclaim these are the best things in the world. It stores it and it dumps it into the gut. And the gut reabsorbs the amount of amino acids to fill the void. Yet you have totally balanced amino acid profile.

So what are the phytonutrients? Phytonutrients [are] everything else that you take as a dietary supplement or natural medicine that comes from plants. Tomatoes have lycopene, right. So they take lycopene supplements for your prostate.

What about my blueberries and my bilberry? What about my green tea? What about my resveratrol from grapes? What about my beta-carotene from carrots? What about my ginger? Fiber helps feed the prebiotics which helps the probiotics in the gut where 80 percent of the immune system is.

It helps move the food, so it improves the transit time. The more the patient is constipated, then the more the toxins the body is trying to get rid of. Remember, cytotoxins from like fast food or cigarettes or chemicals — even good food. If you eat organic, non-GMO food, you still have to produce waste. Then what happens is those chemicals, the xenoestrogens, the hormones, all those, whatever pesticides, herbicides, preservatives, colors and all things, they will reabsorb into the tissue and it recycles.

So when people have a bowel movement every other day, every three days, every five days, every seven days, every 10 days, every 12 days in certain cities — those people have higher risks. So every time the bowel movement comes later and later, the higher risk of all the cancers. Every other day, goes up. Every three days, goes up. Every five days even higher risk. Same thing with men and their testosterone issue with prostate.

And those colon polyp problems over time can turn into colon cancer. We have now the third most common cause of death is colon cancer in the United States. I need my A, my C, my E, my zinc, my magnesium. I need all these things.

According to Pai, eating a whole foods, plant-based diet is what will help prevent, treat and reverse disease in humans — and it is backed up by science. According to Pai, in the United States managing disease is what brings in the money. Insurance companies have now an invested interest in fast food. In fact, the top 17 insurance companies, particularly the top five, own hundreds of millions of dollars of stock in each [of the major] fast food restaurants.

In any other industry that would be like conflict of interest or unethical. Who is keeping us America in this cycle of chronic illness? Supplements that can Prevent Breast Cancer.

Your immune system is your first line of defense and everything from your natural killer cells, to your macrophages. I mean all these things are… those are the types of cells that target and actually destroy the cancer cells. How do you break that cycle? Basic nutrients like Vitamin C, selenium, zinc, all these things make sure that your immune system is active. Not only is a weak immune system a major reason patients have cancer — and cancer itself can further weaken the immune system.

Beta glucans help regulate the immune system, making it more efficient. This is a critical point to understand and remember. More than thousands of people have reduced their body size and transformed themselves into building lean muscles, eliminating the excess fat without wasting their time.

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You must be logged in to post a comment. Bar Brothers Nutrition Author Name: CLICK HERE Nowadays most of the youngsters are very active and interested in following tips and fitness program to develop their body by storing lean muscle for achieving desired body shape, but it never supports everyone because each and every workout works effectively for only particular parts of their body. Once you start following this program, within a few minutes you will forget all the issues and everything by building lean muscle or losing weight because this will be good for anything that you have ever seen before This Muscle Building Fat Burning Nutrition Guide supports you to change the lives of others and how they can do the same for you.

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With amazing things, you can boil up your energy levels and sharpen your mind to be more focused and alert. Vitamin A deficiency, list of publications.

Trends and mortality effects of vitamin A deficiency in children in low-income and middle-income countries between and This indicator allows an assessment of iodine deficiency at the population level. Iodine is an essential trace element that is present on the thyroid hormones, thyroxine and triiodotyronine. It occurs most frequently in areas where there is little iodine in the diet—typically remote inland areas where no marine foods are eaten.

Although goitre assessment by palpation or ultrasound may be useful for assessing thyroid function, results are difficult to interpret once salt iodization programmes have started. The median urinary iodine concentration is considered the main indicator of iodine status for all age groups, because its measurement is relatively non-invasive, cost-efficient and easy to perform.

Since the majority of iodine absorbed by the body is excreted in the urine, it is considered a sensitive marker of current iodine intake and can reflect recent changes in iodine status. Median urinary iodine concentrations have been most commonly measured in school children aged 6—12 years due to their easy access. During the neonatal period, childhood and adolescence, iodine deficiency disorders can lead to hypo- and hyperthyroidism.

Serious iodine deficiency during pregnancy can result in stillbirth, spontaneous abortion and congenital abnormalities such as cretinism, a grave, irreversible form of mental retardation that affects people living in iodine-deficient areas of Africa and Asia. Of even greater significance is the less visible, yet pervasive, mental impairment that reduces intellectual capacity at home, in school and at work.

Cut-off values for public health significance in different target groups. Concentration cut-off values for public health significance. May pose a slight risk of more than adequate iodine intake in these populations. Risk of adverse health consequences iodine-induced hyperthyroidism, autoimmune thyroid disease. Urinary iodine concentrations for determining iodine status deficiency in populations.

Goitre as a determinant of the prevalence and severity of iodine deficiency disorders in populations. Iodine deficiency, list of publications. Global iodine status in and trends over the past decade. In NLIS, it is used as a proxy for access to health services and maternal care.

The indicator gives the percentage of live births attended by skilled health personnel in a given period. A skilled birth attendant is an accredited health professional—such as a midwife, doctor or nurse—who has been educated and trained to proficiency in the skills needed to manage normal uncomplicated pregnancies, childbirth and the immediate postnatal period, and in the identification, management and referral of women and newborns for complications.

In developed countries and in many urban areas in developing countries, skilled care at delivery is usually provided in health facilities. Births do, however, take place in various other appropriate places, from home to tertiary referral centres, depending on availability and need. WHO does not recommend a particular setting for giving birth. Home delivery may be appropriate for normal births, provided that the person attending the delivery is suitably trained and equipped and that referral to a higher level of care is an option, however this may lead to an overestimation of births attended by skilled personal as infants delivered outside of a health facility may not have their birth method recorded.

All women should have access to skilled care during pregnancy and at delivery to ensure the detection and management of complications. One woman dies needlessly of pregnancy-related causes every minute, representing more than half a million mothers lost each year, a figure that has improved little over the past few decades. Another 8 million or more suffer life-long health consequences from the complications of pregnancy. The lack of progress in reducing maternal mortality in many countries often reflects the low value placed on the lives of women and their limited role in setting public priorities.

The lives of many women in developing countries could be saved by reproductive health interventions that people in rich countries take for granted, such as the presence of skilled health personnel at delivery. Improved sanitation facilit ies and drinking-water sources. What do these indicators tell us? These indicators are the percentage of population with access to an improved drinking-water source and improved sanitation facilities.

How are they defined? Improved drinking-water sources are defined in terms of the types of technology and levels of services that are likely to provide safe water.

Improved water sources include household connections, public standpipes, boreholes, protected dug wells, protected springs and rainwater collection.

Unimproved water sources are unprotected wells, unprotected springs, vendor-provided water, bottled water unless water for other uses is available from an improved source and tanker truck-provided water. Improved sanitation facilities are defined in terms of the types of technology and levels of services that are likely to be sanitary. Improved sanitation includes connection to a public sewers, connection to septic systems, pour-flush latrines, simple pit latrines and ventilated improved pit latrines.

Service or bucket latrines from which excreta are removed manually , public latrines and open latrines are not considered to be improved sanitation. Access to safe drinking-water and improved sanitation are fundamental needs and human rights vital for the dignity and health of all people. The health and economic benefits of a safe water supply to households and individuals especially children are well documented.

Both indicators are used to monitor progress towards the Millennium Development Goals. Water, Sanitation and Hygiene. World Health Statistics, Children aged 1 y ear immunized against measles. Estimates of vaccination coverage of children aged 1 year are used to monitor vaccination services, to guide disease eradication and elimination programmes and as indicators of health system performance.

Measles vaccination coverage is defined as the percentage of 1-year-olds who have received at least one dose of measles-containing vaccine in a given year. In countries that recommend that the first dose be given to children over 12 months of age, the indicator is calculated as the proportion of children under 24 months of age receiving one dose of measles-containing vaccine.

Measles is a leading cause of vaccine-preventable childhood deaths, and unvaccinated populations are at risk for the disease. Measles is a significant infectious disease because it is so contagious that the number of people who would suffer complications after an outbreak among nonimmune people would quickly overwhelm available hospital resources. When vaccination rates fall, the number of nonimmune persons in the community rises, and the risk for an outbreak of measles consequently rises.

Millennium Development Goals indicators database. This indicator reflects the percentage of women who consumed any iron-containing supplements during the current or past pregnancy within the last 2 years. It provides information about the quality and coverage of perinatal medical services. Daily iron and folic acid supplementation is currently recommended by WHO as part of antenatal care to reduce the risk of low birth weight, maternal anaemia and iron deficiency.

However, despite its proven efficacy and wide inclusion in antenatal care programmes, its use has been limited in programme settings, possibly due to a lack of compliance, concerns about the safety of the intervention among women with an adequate iron intake, and variable availability of the supplements at community level.

This indicator is included as a process indicator in the core set of indicators for the Global Nutrition Monitoring Framework. The indicator is defined as the proportion of women who consumed any iron-containing supplements during the current or past pregnancy within the last 2 years.

Data can be reported on any iron-containing supplement including iron and folic acid tablets IFA , multiple micronutrient tablets or powders, or iron-only tablets which will vary by country policy. Improving the intake of iron and folic acid by women of reproductive age could improve pregnancy outcomes and enhance maternal and infant health.

Iron and folic acid supplementation improve iron and folate status of women before and during pregnancy, in communities where food-based strategies are not yet fully implemented or effective. Folic acid supplementation with or without iron provided before pregnancy and during the first trimester of pregnancy is also recommended for decreasing the risk of neural tube defects. Anaemia during pregnancy places women at risk for poor pregnancy outcomes, including maternal mortality and also increases the risks for perinatal mortality, premature birth and low birth weight.

Infants born to anaemic mothers have less than one half the normal iron reserves. Morbidity from infectious diseases is increased in iron-deficient populations, because of the adverse effect of iron deficiency on the immune system.

Iron deficiency is also associated with reduced work capacity and with reduced neurocognitive development. Demographic and Health Surveys. Global Nutrition Monitoring Framework: Operational guidance for tracking progress in meeting targets for Children with diarrhoea receiving oral rehydration therapy. This indicator is the prevalence of children with diarrhoea who received oral rehydration therapy.

It is the proportion of children aged 0—59 months who had diarrhoea and were treated with oral rehydration salts or an appropriate household solution.

The terms used for diarrhoea should cover the expressions used for all forms of diarrhoea, including bloody stools consistent with dysentery and watery stools, and should encompasses mothers' definitions as well as local terms. Diarrhoeal diseases remain one of the major causes of mortality among children under 5, accounting for 1. As oral rehydration therapy is a critical component of effective management of diarrhoea, monitoring coverage with this highly cost—effective intervention indicates progress on an intermediate outcome indicator of the Global Nutrition Targets, prevalence of diarrhoea in children under 5 years of age.

Children with diarrhoea receiving zinc. This indicator reflects the prevalence of children who were given zinc as part of treatment for acute diarrhoea. Unfortunately, there are no readily available data on this indicator, which is maintained in the NLIS to encourage countries to collect and compile data on these aspects in order to assess their national capacity.

Measures to prevent childhood diarrhoeal episodes include promoting zinc intake. Diarrhoeal diseases account for nearly 2 million deaths a year among children under 5, making them the second most-common cause of child death worldwide. The greater the prevalence of zinc supplementation during diarrhoea treatment, the better the outcome of treatment for diarrhoea.

WHO and the United Nations Children's Fund UNICEF recommend exclusive breastfeeding, vitamin A supplementation, improved hygiene, better access to cleaner sources of drinking-water and sanitation facilities and vaccination against rotavirus in the clinical management of acute diarrhoea and also the use of zinc, which is safe and effective. Specifically, zinc supplements given during an episode of acute diarrhoea reduce the duration and severity of the episode, and giving zinc supplements for days lowers the incidence of diarrhoea in the following months.

Currently no data are available. The impact of zinc supplementation on childhood mortality and severe morbidity. Report of a workshop to review the results of three large studies. Geneva , World Health Organization, Children aged months receiving v itamin A supplements. These indicators are the proportion of children aged months who received one and two doses of vitamin A supplements, respectively. The indicators are defined as the proportion of children aged months who received one or two high doses of vitamin A supplements within 1 year.

Current international recommendations call for high-dose vitamin A supplementation every months for all children between the ages of 6 and 59 months living in affected areas. The recommended doses are IU for month-old children and IU for those aged months. Programmes to control vitamin A deficiency enhance children's chances of survival, reduce the severity of childhood illnesses, ease the strain on health systems and hospitals and contribute to the well-being of children, their families and communities.

The World Summit for Children set the goal of virtual elimination of vitamin A deficiency and its consequences, including blindness, by the year The critical role of vitamin A for child health and immune function also makes control of deficiency a primary component of efforts to improve child survival and therefore of the achievement of the fourth Millennium Development Goal, a two-thirds reduction in mortality of children under 5 by the year As there is strong evidence that supplementation with vitamin A reduces child mortality, measuring the proportion of children who have received vitamin A within the past 6 months can be used to monitor coverage with interventions for achieving the child survival-related Millennium Development Goals.

Supplementation with vitamin A is a safe, cost-effective, efficient means for eliminating its deficiency and improving child survival. Immunization, Vaccines and Biologicals. These indicators are the proportion of children aged months who received one or two doses of vitamin A supplements. The indicator reflects the proportion of babies born in facilities that have been designated as Baby-friendly. Proportion of births in Baby-friendly facilities is included as a process indicator in the core set of indicators for the Global Nutrition Monitoring Framework.

This indicator is defined as the proportion of babies born in facilities designated as Baby-friendly in a calendar year. To be counted as currently Baby-friendly, the facility must have been designated within the last five years or been reassessed within that timeframe. Facilities may be designed as Baby-friendly if they meet the minimum Global Criteria, which includes adherence to the Ten Steps for Successful Breastfeeding and the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes.

The Ten steps include having a breastfeeding policy that is routinely communicated to staff, having staff trained on policy implementation, informing pregnant women on the benefits and management of breastfeeding, promoting early initiation of breastfeeding, among others. The International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes restricts the distribution of free infant formula and promotional materials from infant formula companies.

The more of the Steps that the mother experiences, the better her success with breastfeeding. Improved breastfeeding practices worldwide could save the lives of over children every year. National implementation of the Baby-friendly Hospital Initiative. Implementation of the Baby-friendly Hospital Initiative. Mothers of children months receiving counselling, support or messages on optimal breastfeeding.

Breastfeeding is an unequalled way of providing ideal food for the healthy growth and development of infants; it is also an integral part of the reproductive process with important implications for the health of mothers. Optimal practices include early initiation of breastfeeding within 1 hour, exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months followed by appropriate complementary with continued breastfeeding for 2 years or beyond.

Even though it is a natural act, breastfeeding is also a learned behaviour. Virtually all mothers can breastfeed provided they have accurate information, and support within their families and communities and from the health care system.

This indicator has been established to measure the proportion of mothers receiving breastfeeding counselling, support or messages. The proportion of mothers of children months who have received counselling, support or messages on optimal breastfeeding at least once in the previous 12 months is included as a process indicator in the core set of indicators for the Global Nutrition Monitoring Framework.

The indicator gives the percentage of mothers of children aged months who have received counselling, support or messages on optimal breastfeeding at least once in the last year.

Counseling and informational support on optimal breastfeeding practices for mothers has been demonstrated to improve initiation and duration of breastfeeding, which in has many health benefits for both the mother and infant.

Breast milk contains all the nutrients an infant needs in the first six months of life. Breastfeeding protects against diarrhoea and common childhood illnesses such as pneumonia, and may also have longer-term health benefits for the mother and child, such as reducing the risk of overweight and obesity in childhood and adolescence.

Breastfeeding has also been associated with higher intelligence quotient IQ in children. Salt iodization has been adopted as the main strategy for eliminating iodine-deficiency disorders as a public health problem, and the aim is to achieve universal salt iodization. While other foodstuffs can be iodized, salt has the advantage of being widely consumed and inexpensive.

Salt has been iodized routinely in some industrialized countries since the s. This indicator is a measure of whether a fortification programme is reaching the target population adequately.

The indicator is a measure of the percentage of households consuming iodized salt, defined as salt containing parts per million of iodine. Iodine deficiency is most commonly and visibly associated with thyroid problems e. Consumption of iodized salt increased in the developing world during the past decade: This means that about 84 million newborns are now being protected from learning disabilities due to iodine-deficiency disorders.

Monitoring the situation of women and children. Sustainable elimination of iodine deficiency disorders by Micronutrient deficiencies, iodine deficiency disorders. Population with less than the minimum dietary energy consumption.

This indicator is the percentage of the population whose food intake falls below the minimum level of dietary energy requirements, and who therefore are undernourished or food-deprived. The estimates of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations FAO of the prevalence of undernourishment are essentially measures of food deprivation based on calculations of three parameters for each country: The average amount of food available for human consumption is derived from national 'food balance sheets' compiled by FAO each year, which show how much of each food commodity a country produces, imports and withdraws from stocks for other, non-food purposes.

FAO then divides the energy equivalent of all the food available for human consumption by the total population, to derive average daily energy consumption. Data from household surveys are used to derive a coefficient of variation to account for the degree of inequality in access to food. Similarly, because a large adult needs almost twice as much dietary energy as a 3-year-old child, the minimum energy requirement per person in each country is based on age, gender and body sizes in that country.

The average energy requirement is the amount of food energy needed to balance energy expenditure in order to maintain body weight, body composition and levels of necessary and desirable physical activity consistent with long-term good health.

It includes the energy needed for the optimal growth and development of children, for the deposition of tissues during pregnancy and for the secretion of milk during lactation consistent with the good health of the mother and child. The recommended level of dietary energy intake for a population group is the mean energy requirement of the healthy, well-nourished individuals who constitute that group. FAO reports the proportion of the population whose daily food intake falls below that minimum energy requirement as 'undernourished'.

Trends in undernourishment are due mainly to: The indicator is a measure of an important aspect of food insecurity in a population. Sustainable development requires a concerted effort to reduce poverty, including solutions to hunger and malnutrition. Alleviating hunger is a prerequisite for sustainable poverty reduction, as undernourishment seriously affects labour productivity and earning capacity.

Malnutrition can be the outcome of a range of circumstances. In order for poverty reduction strategies to be effective, they must address food access, availability and safety. Rome, October The State of Food Insecurity in the World Economic growth is necessary but not sufficient to accelerate reduction of hunger and malnutrition. FAO methodology to estimate the prevalence of undernourishment. FAO, Rome, 9 October Infant and young child feeding. The recommendations for feeding infants and young children 6—23 months include: The caring practice indicators for infant and young child feeding available on the NLIS country profiles include: Early initiation of breastfeeding.

This indicator is the percentage of infants who are put to the breast within 1 hour of birth. Breastfeeding contributes to saving children's lives, and there is evidence that delayed initiation of breastfeeding increases their risk for mortality. Infants under 6 months who are exclusively breastfed. This indicator is the percentage of infants aged 0—5 months who are exclusively breastfed.

It is the proportion of infants aged 0—5 months who are fed exclusively on breast milk and no other food or drink, including water.

The infant is however, allowed to receive ORS and drops and syrups containing vitamins, minerals and medicine. Exclusive breastfeeding is an unequalled way of providing the ideal food for the healthy growth and development of infants; it is also an integral part of the reproductive process, with important implications for the health of mothers. An expert review of evidence showed that, on a population basis, exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months is the optimal way of feeding infants.

Breast milk is the natural first food for infants. It provides all the energy and nutrients that the infant needs for the first months of life. Breast milk promotes sensory and cognitive development and protects the infant against infectious and chronic diseases. Exclusive breastfeeding reduces infant mortality due to common childhood illnesses, such as diarrhoea and pneumonia, and leads to quicker recovery from illness. Breastfeeding contributes to the health and well-being of mothers, by helping to space children, reducing their risks for ovarian and breast cancers and saving family and national resources.

It is a secure way of feeding and is safe for the environment. Infants aged 6—8 months who receive solid, semisolid or soft foods. WHO recommends starting complementary feeding at 6 months of age. It is defined as the proportion of infants aged 6—8 months who receive solid, semisolid or soft foods.

When breast milk alone no longer meets the nutritional needs of the infant, complementary foods should be added. This is a very vulnerable period, and it is the time when malnutrition often starts, contributing significantly to the high prevalence of malnutrition among children under 5 worldwide. Children aged 6—23 months who receive a minimum dietary diversity. This indicator is the percentage of children aged 6—23 months who receive a minimum dietary diversity. As per revised recommendation by TEAM in June , dietary diversity is present when the diet contained five or more of the following food groups: Children aged 6—23 months who receive a minimum acceptable diet.

This indicator is the percentage of children aged 6—23 months who receive a minimum acceptable diet. Proportion of children aged months who receive a minimum acceptable diet is included as a process indicator in the core set of indicators for the Global Nutrition Monitoring Framework. The composite indicator of a minimum acceptable diet is calculated from: Dietary diversity is present when the diet contained four or more of the following food groups: The minimum daily meal frequency is defined as: A minimum acceptable diet is essential to ensure appropriate growth and development for feeding infants and children aged 6—23 months.

Without adequate diversity and meal frequency, infants and young children are vulnerable to malnutrition, especially stunting and micronutrient deficiencies, and to increased morbidity and mortality. Source of all infant and young child feeding indicators. Infant and Young Child Feeding database. Infant and young child feeding list of publications. Global Nutrition Monitoring Framework. Children with diarrhoea receiving oral rehydration therapy and continued feeding. This indicator is the prevalence of children with diarrhoea who received oral rehydration therapy and continued feeding.

It is the proportion of children aged months who had diarrhoea and were treated with oral rehydration salts or an appropriate household solution and continued feeding.

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