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Sow Condition Scoring " Manufacturing had closed down. Bifidobacteria are also abundant, and are often described as 'friendly bacteria'. Shopper's Guide to Personal Care Products Read and print the shopper's guide to 1,4-dioxane-free personal care products http: Bitter melon juice induced this programmed cell death along several different pathways. We are proud of the work we do and would like to share these testimonials to glorify Yahweh, the God of all creation. Bear in mind, this is what I did.

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It contains no trace of understanding in its entirety, but the numbers in the results are fascinating. How do we sum it up? If you pay people to over eat kcal per day for three weeks they gain weight and they gain liver fat.

Posted by Peter at Sunday, July 22, 14 comments: Butter gives you fatty liver! Tuesday, July 17, Oops. OMG, just seen how many comments are awaiting moderation now I'm back to occasional posting. I'll see what I can do, if desperate I'll just delete the spam and hit post for them all. Apologies for the inattention over the past few weeks Posted by Peter at Tuesday, July 17, No comments: Woo had a bit of a rant about acipimox.

Here's my simplified idea. I've been interested in acipimox, in a round about sort of a way, for a very long time. To me, the core fascination is that it is not only an effective suppressor of lipolysis, but it is pretty well weight-neutral and it most certainly does not result in weight gain.

Which, you have to admit, is interesting. How can this be? I feel something of a clue can be found in the studies using a similar drug, nicotinic acid. Both drugs effectively suppress plasma free fatty acids via the same receptor but the neatest study happens use nicotinic acid.

People may recall that I posted about the role of FFAs in the secretion of insulin as demonstrated by an isolated rodent pancreatic preparation, some time ago. The core concept here is that insulin secretion is dependent on the chain length and saturation of the FFAs used for perfusing the pancreas along with the glucose.

This phenomenon appears to be well appreciated by the authors of this next paper same research group: Circulating fatty acids are essential for efficient glucose-stimulated insulin secretion after prolonged fasting in humans So what happens to in-tact humans when you fast them for 24 hours to raise FFAs and then bolus them with intravenous glucose?

Or fast them, artificially drop their FFAs with nicotinic acid, and then bolus them with glucose? This is what happens: Posted by Peter at Tuesday, July 17, 8 comments: Monday, May 28, Speculation on the effect of subcutaneous adipocytes implanted in to the mesentery of mice.

Taking a piece of subcutaneous fat from a sacrificed mouse and implanting in to the mesentery of a recipient mouse causes weight loss in the recipient , starting once the surgery has healed. We know that healing takes something just over six weeks: Posted by Peter at Monday, May 28, 6 comments: Speculation on the effect of subcutaneous adipocytes implanted in to the mesentery of mice.

Sunday, May 20, Guddling in the dark for a respiratory quotient 2. Multiple papers have values that don't make sense, which is an issue making me doubt my sanity and is damaging to my personal extensive set of confirmation biases. They also produce basic contradictions of the physiology of the oxidation of glucose vs the oxidation of fatty acids.

But now I think I can go back and explain much of the peculiarity in this image from Kahn's group, the one which triggered this previous post. Two sets of mice, on the same chow, having sustained differences in RQ, in a way I couldn't understand: Posted by Peter at Sunday, May 20, 12 comments: Guddling in the dark for a respiratory quotient 2. I picked up this paper via Face-ache so cannot recall to whom I should credit for the find. The post is also highly speculative. Higher h Respiratory Quotient and Higher Spontaneous Physical Activity in Nighttime Eaters It's worth noting that the difference is small but probably biologically significant.

Statistically p is less than 0. Before we think about it we need some background. That comes from the same group in an earlier paper: Posted by Peter at Saturday, May 12, 21 comments: Nighttime Eaters have an elevated RQ on a given macro ratio diet. Friday, April 13, AHA approved egg! One of the full size chickens miss-fired yesterday and produced this minute egg: Posted by Peter at Friday, April 13, 19 comments: Monday, April 09, Pasta for weight loss.

This paper hit T'internet recently and has been cited all over the place: Effect of pasta in the context of low-glycaemic index dietary patterns on body weight and markers of adiposity: I've greyed it out so no-one is tempted to read it in full, the flavour is all you need: All authors have completed the Unified Competing Interest form available on request from the corresponding author and declare: His wife is an employee of Unilever Canada.

This a BMJ publication. The critical aspect to me is the publication date. Was it April the first? It should have been, except April the first this year was Easter Sunday.

Not even at BMJ do they hit the "publish" button on a Sunday morning. Easter Monday appears fair game and someone at BMJ appears to have been at work to hit said publish button on April the 2nd. Ah, the twists of fate produced by the lunacy of the movement of Easter through the calendar. I think someone at the BMJ may have a sense of humour.

Reading the conflict of interest statement, I wonder if the authors do too and whether there was some collusion in the choice of publication date. Otherwise it's not funny. Posted by Peter at Monday, April 09, 13 comments: Pasta for weight loss.

Wednesday, March 21, Guddling in the dark for a respiratory quotient. How can two groups of mice, on exactly the same chow, have different 24h averaged RQs, p less than 0.

Posted by Peter at Wednesday, March 21, 17 comments: Guddling in the dark. I was fortunate enough to intercalate a BSc degree in physiology in to my veterinary degree. I was even more fortunate to study under Patrick Wall at UCH, who set me on course to become a veterinary anaesthetist, mostly working on acute pain control. That led to the Certificate then Diploma in Veterinary Anaesthesia and enough publications to allow me to enter the European College of Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia as a de facto founding member.

Anaesthesia teaches you a lot. Basic science is combined with the occasional need to act rapidly. Wrong decisions can reward you with catastrophe in seconds. I stumbled on to nutrition completely by accident. Once you have been taught to think, it's hard to stop. I think about lots of things. These are some of them. View my complete profile. Organisation or lack of it! If they're numbered within a similar label, start with 1.

I might change it to the previous week if I ever get to time to put up enough posts in a week to justify it. That seems to be the best I can do within the limits of this blogging software! It's all over now Between countries 1 Cholesterol ratios through the looking glass 1 Cholesterol ratios: Do chylomicrons clog your arteries?

LCAT and rabbits 1 Cholesterol: LDL in Oslo 1 Cholesterol: More epidemiology 1 Cholesterol: Near miss in Edinburgh 1 Cholesterol: Peto seeing some light? What does it mean? African Beef Stew 1 Food: Lardo; the real thing 1 Food: Liver and bacon 1 Food: Liver; can you over do it? The normal flora is also essential in the development of certain tissues, including the cecum and lymphatics.

They are also involved in the production of cross-reactive antibodies. These are antibodies produced by the immune system against the normal flora, that are also effective against related pathogens, thereby preventing infection or invasion. The two most prevalent phyla of the colon are firmicutes and bacteroides. The ratio between the two seems to vary widely as reported by the Human Microbiome Project.

Bifidobacteria are also abundant, and are often described as 'friendly bacteria'. A mucus layer protects the large intestine from attacks from colonic commensal bacteria. Colonoscopy is the endoscopic examination of the large intestine and the distal part of the small bowel with a CCD camera or a fiber optic camera on a flexible tube passed through the anus.

It can provide a visual diagnosis e. Colonoscopy can remove polyps as small as one millimetre or less. Once polyps are removed, they can be studied with the aid of a microscope to determine if they are precancerous or not. It takes 15 years or less for a polyp to turn cancerous.

Colonoscopy is similar to sigmoidoscopy —the difference being related to which parts of the colon each can examine. A sigmoidoscopy is often used as a screening procedure for a full colonoscopy, often done in conjunction with a fecal occult blood test FOBT. Virtual colonoscopy , which uses 2D and 3D imagery reconstructed from computed tomography CT scans or from nuclear magnetic resonance MR scans, is also possible, as a totally non-invasive medical test, although it is not standard and still under investigation regarding its diagnostic abilities.

If a growth or polyp is detected using CT colonography, a standard colonoscopy would still need to be performed. Additionally, surgeons have lately been using the term pouchoscopy to refer to a colonoscopy of the ileo-anal pouch. The large intestine is truly distinct only in tetrapods , in which it is almost always separated from the small intestine by an ileocaecal valve.

In most vertebrates, however, it is a relatively short structure running directly to the anus, although noticeably wider than the small intestine. Although the caecum is present in most amniotes , only in mammals does the remainder of the large intestine develop into a true colon. In some small mammals, the colon is straight, as it is in other tetrapods, but, in the majority of mammalian species, it is divided into ascending and descending portions; a distinct transverse colon is typically present only in primates.

However, the taeniae coli and accompanying haustra are not found in either carnivorans or ruminants. The rectum of mammals other than monotremes is derived from the cloaca of other vertebrates, and is, therefore, not truly homologous with the "rectum" found in these species.

In fish, there is no true large intestine, but simply a short rectum connecting the end of the digestive part of the gut to the cloaca. In sharks , this includes a rectal gland that secretes salt to help the animal maintain osmotic balance with the seawater. The gland somewhat resembles a caecum in structure, but is not a homologous structure.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Colon anatomy. Large intestine Front of abdomen , showing the large intestine, with the stomach and small intestine in gray outline. Front of abdomen, showing surface markings for liver red , and the stomach and large intestine blue.

The large Intestine is like an upside down U. Development of the digestive system. This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. Angiodysplasia of the colon Appendicitis Chronic functional abdominal pain Colitis Colorectal cancer Colorectal polyp Constipation Crohn's disease Diarrhea Diverticulitis Diverticulosis Hirschsprung's disease aganglionosis Ileus Intussusception Irritable bowel syndrome Pseudomembranous colitis Ulcerative colitis and toxic megacolon.

This article uses anatomical terminology; for an overview, see Anatomical terminology. Mosby's Medical Dictionary 8th ed. A Dictionary of Biology.

Gray's Anatomy for Students. J Vis Exp Retrieved March 21, The Journal of Infectious Diseases. Clinical Anatomy for Medical Students 4 ed.

Little, Brown, and Company. Ask a Digestive System Specialist. Archived from the original on Above with active image links ". Retrieved 8 November Kochman 18 August The American Journal of Gastroenterology. World J Gastrointest Oncol. Did it once have a purpose that has since been lost?

Applied and Environmental Microbiology. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. Journal of Lipid Research.

Journal of General Internal Medicine. Retrieved Jun 15, Michael; Allen, Paul M. J Natl Cancer Inst. Please subscribe or contact customer service. Carpal tunnel syndrome In the past few months, waking up in the morning has required waking your hand up too. Vaccinations The need for vaccinations doesn't end after childhood. Each year people die or are injured by diseases that could Macular degeneration You visited an eye doctor because it's gradually become more difficult for you to read smaller print.

Radiation from imaging tests There are wide-ranging benefits to the use of modern X-ray imaging technology, which uses radiation to generate images of Top Stories Wrist fracture Is surgery right for you? Nonalcoholic fatty liver The new face of metabolic syndrome. Chronic pain medications Targeted use works best.

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