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Trauma that occurs after childhood also has the potential to be debilitating for men. Victims of violent crime and destructive accidents; individuals who serve to help others in traumatic situations such as police officers, fire fighters, emergency medical technicians, and emergency room personnel; and soldiers involved in combat situations are susceptible to post-traumatic stress disorder.
Not only are men directly affected by the trauma, but many are also guided by their traditional male gender role socialization that tells them to keep the fear, disturbing mental imagery, and emotional pain to themselves. Often stimuli in the environment that remind a man of the traumatic situation can trigger intense physiological reactions and send an individual into a dissociative-like state of re-experiencing the trauma American Psychiatric Association, Many men work hard to avoid talking about or participating in activities or relationships that may bring the trauma into consciousness.
Relationships toward family and friends are often marked by general irritability, outbursts of anger, and a tendency to withdraw from intimacy. Many with PTSD have difficulty falling and staying asleep at night, a hard time concentrating, and are prone to excessive vigilance of the environment for threats to their well being. The reader is referred to the DSM-5 American Psychiatric Association, for a more detailed description of the criteria for post-traumatic stress disorder.
Men who have experienced trauma not only battle the aftereffects of the traumatic situation in which they have been involved, but also the normative male socialization that has told them to keep their emotional reactions to themselves.
When symptoms do emerge, not only does a man feel the impact of the trauma itself, but also the shame for not being able to contain his reaction. Therapy with men who have been traumatized is fraught with a push-pull dynamic of self-protective defensiveness along with a desire to be free of intrusive thoughts, hyper-arousal, and pessimism Egendorf, Brooks describes a model for working with combat veterans that requires therapists to be empathic to the underlying emotional pain and the shame that covers it.
He believes that men need to reevaluate their gender role and make life changes that counter the destructive messages they have learned about masculinity. He warns therapists to be patient and reinforcing of small steps of progress while also expecting resistance to change. Successful therapy with combat veterans involves being compassionate about the sacrifices these individuals have made and the emotional wounds that may not be visible Brooks, He was addicted to speed and alcohol, and had served some time in jail for assault.
Clay was initially admitted to the substance abuse ward. Once detoxed, he went to inpatient group and individual therapy. The following is from an individual session in the working phase of his treatment. I used to think that being a man meant being the toughest son of a bitch I could be. A lot of good that did me.
It got me some jail time and a life as a drug addict. I sure hope this therapy can help me. To be honest, it is pretty painful. The source of my rage. I can fly off the handle so easily.
I guess I used alcohol to deal with my pent up anger. Now, I have nothing to save me. I was a hothead. I actually thought that enlisting would give me a job that let me go crazy on people but I was actually more constricted. All the damn discipline just kept it pent up. When I let go, it was worse than I could imagine.
Can we back off? Go over it another day? You got closer to talking today than you did last week. The realization that traditional masculinity has had negative consequences is an important insight for Clay, who must change how he defines himself. He acknowledges that he is uncomfortable without his usual coping methods of using alcohol and drugs. The therapist is able to stay with Clay as he experiences the flashback without pressuring him. In previous sessions, Clay would avoid speaking of anything having to do with his combat experience.
Not only is the flashback frightening, it is also shameful to be so exposed in the presence of another man. In general, therapists working with men who have experienced severe trauma will have to deal with denial and anger in the early stages of their work. Pushing too hard for resolution at this phase will likely result in more resistance.
A testing phase is also likely to occur to ensure that the therapist can handle the depth of his emotional pain. This may take the form of confrontation or cynicism about the therapeutic process. Once a man feels trusting of the therapist, he is more likely to take the risk to reveal his inner emotional cauldron. Therapists are encouraged to stay patient, emotionally neutral, and accepting during the process.
In environments where the work is with those who have been traumatized, it is important for clinicians to have their own support systems in the form of supervision, personal therapy, and outlets for emotional expression. It is common in warrior cultures for there to be a sanctioned masculine ideology that encourages toughness, independence, fearlessness, and aggressiveness toward others Lisak, a. This cultural encouragement may have its advantages when fighting wars, but has a steep price for men who engage in this type of behavior under more civilized circumstances.
While men may have a biological predisposition to act aggressively, it is our culture that encourages men to act this out more often Lisak, a. Men are more likely than women to commit acts of violence. Higher rates of substance and alcohol abuse among men are also linked to increased rates in violent crime National Crime Victimization Survey, The impact of acting out violence against others affects not only the victims of these actions, but also places the perpetrator in danger of losing employment, family relationships, and future success in life.
Often, those who commit violence against others are incarcerated. Initial encounters with the legal system sometimes offer men the opportunity to remain out of the prison system. The ability to remain employed or maintain status in school will often be contingent upon receiving treatment for anger management, domestic violence, or violent behavior. Many treatment programs for men utilize group interventions to address these issues.
Both highly structured cognitive oriented groups e. The cycle begins when a man who has insecure attachment from childhood and adolescent experiences, encounters rejection in his main interpersonal relationship. This rejection leads to a sense of inner shame that he defends against through denigrating his partner and rejecting the message she is sending. Therapists should be cognizant of this cycle as they intervene with men who are act out in this way.
The most popular approach for men who have anger or violence problems is cognitive-behavioral therapy.
Many men who come to counseling or therapy for anger and violence concerns may initially deny the severity of their actions. They may seem to lack intrinsic motivation to change. There is still an opportunity for clinicians to have an impact by gently reminding the client about the consequences of his actions on others and himself. Through empathy and respect, and a focus on changing damaging thoughts and behaviors, many men will respond favorably to treatment.
The essence of the cognitive-behavioral approach is that violence as a response to anger is a learned behavior that can also be unlearned Hollenhorst, The cognitive approach encourages the therapist to help the client to first become aware of the underlying thoughts and cues in the environment that lead to an escalation of anger, verbal abuse, and physical acting out. By gently challenging distorted and misguided thoughts in a collaborative therapeutic relationship, the client is able to become aware of the consequences of his perceptions, thinking, and emotional reactions.
In the process, a man learns that he is responsible for his actions even when he is in provocative situations. Dom agreed to see the therapist alone if it would save his relationship. The following occurred in the first individual session. So where do we start? You must see guys in here who are a lot worse than me, who beat their wives.
Tell me what circumstances bring it on. Stacy knows how to push my buttons. I try to blow it off but she keeps harping on me and then sometimes I lose it.
I feel really bad saying this out loud. We get along most of the time. What do you say to yourself when you feel this way? I feel like a bad person. Like I am no good. I wish she would stop. I feel so bad. My dad used to vent at me a lot. He was an asshole. Always made me feel like I was doing something wrong. I guess I internalized that. By reminding Dom that he is not accusing him, but rather trying to help him, the therapist makes some headway in getting the client to acknowledge his actions and begin to take responsibility.
A cognitive approach encourages Dom to reflect on the steps that escalate his anger, and opens him to talking about the feelings that he is trying to avoid. Many men react with anger to cover feelings of vulnerability and hurt. It is not unusual for men to enter the therapeutic environment because of a problem with addiction.
This might include difficulties with alcohol and other mood-altering substances. Addiction may have its roots in both neurochemical predisposition and traumatization. The numbing of painful experience and the conversion of a negative mood state to one that is pleasurable are often the motivators and reinforcers of addictive behavior.
Because our culture makes it difficult for men to express vulnerable emotions, outlets are often limited to legal and illegal addictive substances and activities. Brad came to counseling following a two-week crack cocaine binge. He used most of his savings to pay for the drugs.
Brad had been through two day stints in a drug rehabilitation center in the past three years. He had been clean for over six months before his recent binge.
Brad is employed in a family business owned by his uncle, who has let him return to work after each of his treatments. I am so damn stupid. And I am so friggin' selfish. How stupid is that? You are really beating yourself up right now. What if we separate out the part of you that is feeling really angry with yourself from the other parts?
I was thinking you could identify the various parts of yourself that exist inside. I was thinking that you could have a dialogue with yourself.
All the different parts talking to each other so we know where each is coming from. He never has enough. All he wants to do is escape into pleasure. He wants to be high, to have sex, to indulge himself with reckless abandon. Man, I would call him the hanging judge. Those are intensely negative self-statements. What is it like to just say them here? I can feel myself getting uptight and ready to run.
Like I could run out the door right now and not come back. I guess that is the addict. Is there a part of you that sits on the side of the conflict? Not the addict or the judge? Yeah, the part that is coming for help. I just want some help in this war. Maybe if I can learn some techniques for catching myself before I act out, I might have a chance.
The therapist uses a gestalt technique to get the client to differentiate various elements of his personality. By separating the parts of self, the client is able to speak freely from each perspective. In this session, Brad has identified in his own words three aspects of himself that can be addressed in his quest to live a more moderate existence. The therapist will be able to refer to these aspects of the client when he notices their appearance.
By increasing awareness of these parts, the client already is beginning the process of gaining some cognitive control over his behavior. Twelve-step support groups like Alcoholics Anonymous, Narcotics Anonymous, and Sexaholics Anonymous might help with ongoing behavior and emotional control for some individuals, especially middle-class Caucasian men.
The emphasis on giving up some of their control to a higher power seems to resonate with this group of men who tend to be more control-oriented Isenhart, The results are mixed for women and for men from ethnic minority populations. Cognitive methods that emphasize moderation and personal control also show efficacy in combating addiction.
Motivational interviewing, for instance, focuses on the client discussing the benefits and costs of making changes in a permissive and open atmosphere. This also seems to fit a more traditional masculine model of weighing alternatives and having choices. It is recommended that clinicians not trained in working with addiction be careful in treating men who report addictive behavior.
Individual differences in the severity, scope, and nature of the addiction must be assessed to ensure that outpatient treatment is the best route.
For some, inpatient treatment is necessary to remove the individual from the environment so he can detox and be engaged in daily intensive treatment. On the other hand, therapists who themselves have difficulty with accepting the tenets of the step model should be up front with clients who are seeking this kind of treatment.
Gay and bisexual men are more likely than heterosexual men are to seek counseling and psychotherapy Haldeman, The life development of gay and bisexual men often has been marked by harassment, discrimination, and even violence. Unfortunately, a large segment of society does not embrace homosexuality, leaving many gay men feeling marginalized and stigmatized.
While men in the early phase of their acceptance of their sexual orientation might seek therapy, many gay and bisexual men come to counseling for issues other than their sexual orientation. Issues around relationships, self-esteem, work, and emotional conflict are more often the focus for this population Haldeman, Boys and men who are struggling with their sexual orientation may come to a therapist to deal with the complex array of feelings and consequences that come with acknowledging their circumstance.
Mark, a year-old male, came to therapy to deal with the aftermath of the break up of a year gay relationship. Mark had been married to a woman when he was 19, even though he had felt homoerotic attraction since his early teen-age years. He had believed at the time that he could overcome his feelings and become heterosexual. During the three-year marriage, he found himself having fantasies about men and eventually could no longer be honest in marriage.
He and his wife parted amiably after Mark told her he thought he was gay. During the early years of his experimentation, Mark sought counseling with a gay-affirmative therapist, who gave him support as he came out to friends and, eventually, his family. Mark met Steven in his early thirties. They settled into a committed relationship, sharing a house and a life together. Recently Steven, who is four years younger, announced that he no longer wanted to be in the relationship.
He was in love with someone else. Mark was devastated and sought out the therapist he had worked with earlier. I still find it hard to believe he would do this. We had an agreement that we would talk to each other before acting on our attraction. You bet I do. I never wanted to mess that up. I have a hard time getting out of bed to go to work. We had our issues like any couple would. We were having sex a lot less and now looking back on it, we should have talked about that more.
I have put on a little weight. To make things worse, my dad just went into the hospital with heart problems. He collapsed when he was on vacation with my mom. When it rains, it pours. I feel like things are really out of control. At least I have my health, I hope.
He told me he engaged in safe sex, but can I trust anything he says at this point? You know in my job in sales I have to be personable and up all the time. In here, I can tell you but out in the world I need to show that I am still in control and have it together. I have to be strong out there.
I understand you feel like you need to be confident at work. In this case, anyone who has gone through a breakup like this would be upset. Easy for you to say. You deal with emotional people all day. My world is way more formal and uptight. Sounds like you are buying into the traditional male stereotype of having to remain strong and stoic.
The themes that the client brings to the session have to do with relationship loss, but they are influenced by the context of being a gay man.
Even sensitive clinicians need to be aware of how their own biases including heterocentrism, which supports the notion that heterosexuality is the norm for behavior Haldeman, Men who are comfortable with their sexual identity are likely to be in therapy about an issue that is not related to their sexuality. Yet, it is important to be sensitive to the cultural environment from which the client comes, and the degree to which he can be open about his lifestyle.
While a gay therapist may more readily serve as a role model, a heterosexual therapist with sensitivity, imagination, empathy, and experience can be very effective with gay male clients Lebolt, Gender identity is distinct from sexual orientation.
Transgender boys and men were assigned as female based on genitalia at birth, but deeply feel an inherent sense of being a boy, man, or male American Psychological Association, While the identification with maleness may feel natural and healthy, many transgender men experience distress associated with the discrepancy between their biological sex assignment and their gender identity Coleman, et.
In addition, prejudice and discrimination around basic rights like bathroom choice, healthcare access, and workplace treatment add to feelings of alienation. Clinicians working with transgender men should become versed in the developing literature around transgender individuals in order to be most effective American Psychological Association, Singh and Dickey describe how to best approach and support transgender individuals in the therapy process, carefully tackling underlying mental health issues that may accompany, but not necessarily be caused by transitioning.
Price, 19, sought therapy as a part of his transitioning process from a biological female to a transgender male. He had begun hormone treatment and had been referred by his primary physician to talk with a therapist about how he was handling the process.
After all I have been through, I am really hoping that I will finally feel some sort of closure. More that I was always alone with my internal thoughts and feelings.
You could say that. I still fear that everyone thinks I am pretty crazy. I mean who goes through all of this to change their gender identity? Well, I am sure betting on the hormones and surgery to make me who I really am.
To be honest, I sometime have some doubts. Well, what if I am just a lonely, confused person who is counting on a gender identity transition to make me feel normal? Sometimes I wonder if I could pull off being kind of gender ambiguous.
That way I could lean one way or the other based on who I am with but this would leave it up to them to project onto me who they want me to be. You know, I tried it. What ended up happening was that I gave all the power to others to define me. It was definitely a safer option, but in many ways made me more anxious about myself. It sounds like it feels better to you to make a definite decision about your identity than to leave it up to those around you.
But I am still a little scared that I am being drastic. Most things in this world are rarely so defined in a binary way. It seems like you are feeling like you must choose an identity even though most of us have some gender fluidity in our thoughts, feelings, and behavior.
It feels like I need to do this, but in reality I am not some extreme version of a guy. I am still pretty sensitive to others and appreciate my relationships, and the aesthetic parts of life. Sometimes I fall into the trap of having to prove my maleness by being some extreme version of myself.
All men struggle with this. The gender role norms sometimes make us feel like we are supposed to be a certain way, even though most men only fit the stereotype superficially. It is good to hear you say that. It is easy to fall into that trap. I know I have a long way to go to figure all of this out.
Men are likely to be cautious entering an arena in which they feel they are out of their element. For men raised with traditional male norms, the therapist must show a respect for the unique way a man expresses himself and use an appropriate vocabulary in communication with him. It was tax time, and Joseph was an accountant.
His long hours at the office had provoked a marital crisis, manifested in arguments in which Marie would demand Joseph pay her more attention, and Joseph would retreat to his home computer. She noted that Joseph did not want to come to counseling and that it took an ultimatum to get him to agree. I sense that Marie was the driving force that brought both of you here. It has been my experience that most couples are not pleased to be in counseling. For many men, it seems especially challenging, as if being in counseling is a reflection of a personal failure as a man.
Joseph, I am wondering about some of your thoughts about being in counseling, in particular I wonder about your expectations of what you thought would happen here. Also, it seems that you have an expectation that I might try to force you to see things in a different way. We could start by talking more about some of the expectations that you might have about being in counseling and what could be helpful to you.
Therapists must be able to make an assessment of how entrenched in traditional gender roles the couple is in order to know how to respond to each partner. For men, it might be an observation of how competitive he seems, how much he needs to be in control, and how much psychological distress he is willing to acknowledge.
The idea is that both partners can explore how their adherence to gender role norms is actually inhibiting them from making better choices with each other. For example, therapists can invite their clients to link the process of therapy with their socialization experiences. For a male client having difficulty expressing his emotions, it might be a perfect time to ask him to talk about where he learned about what was acceptable to share in the emotional realm.
This might turn into a discussion about male gender roles, experiences he had in his family of origin, and what he learned from his peers. Perhaps the most difficult task of the therapist is how to get the less expressive male partner to share his more vulnerable emotions like fear, sadness, helplessness, and discomfort.
If a man seems to be repressing emotion and is unable to identify and verbalize feelings, he might be considered alexithymic Levant, If this is the case, a man may need a slower and more psychoeducational approach to therapy. Other men may be able to identify their vulnerable feelings but they have internalized prohibitions on sharing them because of learned gender role socialization. Bergman suggests that some men fear exposing their internal discomfort with the language of emotion.
Margaret, I am a little intimidated by you since you so easily share your feelings. Gay men typically view their committed relationships as seriously as heterosexual couples, despite their marginalization by society.
This leads to a stressful everyday existence, especially for male couples living in non-gay enclaves. It is not unusual for men to have to pretend to be roommates for acquaintances, work colleagues, and unsuspecting family members.
This lack of social support can add to tension in the relationship, especially if each partner has different ideas about how visible the couple should be to the outside world.
Gay men are raised in the same masculine society as heterosexual individuals, leading many to incorporate the same healthy and unhealthy behaviors and roles. It is not unusual for men in struggling relationships to be dealing with issues of power, control, and emotional commitment. On the other hand, therapists need to not project heterosexual roles onto gay couples.
Most gay men define their relationship roles outside the prescribed norms of heterosexual society. Peter, 44, and James, 45, came to therapy to deal with dissatisfaction in their relationship of 17 years. Peter worked in a white-collar executive position with a large company. His companion, James, worked for the telephone company in a primarily blue-collar position.
Peter was not out to his colleagues at work while James was out with his coworkers. Peter tended to have a more traditional masculine style to his manner. He was low key, quiet, and hardworking. James was gregarious and more emotionally expressive. James was the one who had called the therapist.
He had gotten extremely upset when he found emails and phone messages suggesting that Peter was having an extra-relationship affair. After all this time, you knew that we had rules about sex outside the relationship. I know I was bad at the beginning but I have been faithful to you since that time.
How do I know that? Is there something wrong with me? Sounds like you are really hurt, James. What were the rules that you and Peter had about sex outside the relationship?
He is really getting a lot more attention. I mean he looks great. We go together and leave together, and we engage in safe sex. I have a strong need to be affectionate and even that is not very frequent. How come none of our stuff is in both of our names? Where do you want to start? In this session, Peter and James are revealing the rifts in the relationship through the content and process of their interaction. The therapist remains nonjudgmental as he encourages each man to talk about his side of the conflict.
At this point, the therapist is thinking that therapy will involve having each partner express his dissatisfaction, his hopes, his needs, and what each might want to renegotiate in terms of their expectations of each other and their rules of engagement.
A significant issue that brings couples to therapy is a change in sexual desire or a breach of relationship rules LaSala, It is not uncommon for monogamous male partners to have negotiated rules about extra-relational sex and its place in the relationship. In light of these findings, it is not unusual for the therapist to encounter couples when there has been a violation of one of the rules that the couple had set up around sex.
Often the change in relationship dynamics around sex will reveal other fissures including power issues, money conflicts, role discomfort, communication problems, and personality differences that can be productively explored in the therapeutic environment. But instead of entering a hardened and competitive male world, he enters one that is interpersonally receptive. Instead of maintaining rigid patterns of behavior that result in the avoidance of intimacy, addiction, and privately experienced distress, the group encourages warmth, support, and trust so that conflict can be dealt with in a straightforward fashion.
Men are free to engage in confrontation because they trust that they will gain personally from the interaction. Affection, rather than being avoided, can be used to show caring among men. Rather than try to solve problems, men are given a chance to express feelings, empathize and support each other, and learn to stay with uncomfortable emotions.
Men are asked to give up some of their control and vulnerability in order to explore beneath their social roles and facades. Men support each other in taking on this challenge. The attractiveness and success of group therapy for men is built on the premise that the group situation is often a better fit for many men — especially those with traditional gender role orientations — than individual psychotherapy Brooks, , a. Men's therapy groups build on the support that men can uniquely give each other.
Sharing similar physical bodies, similar socialization, and similar relational perspectives, men often feel a different kind of support than what they receive from the women in their lives. With my male friends, I tended to relate about sports, school, and work and not burden them with the stuff I would tell my mother or girlfriend.
I felt like I couldn't be completely real with either women or men. In the men's group, I have found out that most men feel this way. It has been such a feeling of a burden lifted to realize I can be totally myself here; gentle, aggressive, compassionate, wild, or competitive and still be accepted by these guys, who I initially thought were going to judge and reject me.
Men's groups help men trust other men again. In our competitive culture, men are often pitted against each other at work or even at play. The buddies one might have had growing up are more difficult to find in the adult world. Many men find the pressures of work and family take most of their energy and time. It is easy to lose touch with one's emotional self by trying to obey the social rules in each aspect of life. In a men's group, it is expected that each man will talk about who he really is, not just his work or social persona.
Men's groups give hope and rebuild confidence in their members. In very few settings, do men actually verbalize and show each other support, respect, and care. The men who initially come to group are often emotionally isolated and discouraged, receiving very little positive support from relationships or work Rabinowitz, Uniquely Yours plan is a great option if you want total control of your foods, full access to the frozen menu, and access to their largest selection of foods.
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While most retail bridal shops focus on selling wedding gowns, our focus is everything else. We will cater to the mothers of the bride and groom, bridesmaids, and flower girls. In addition, we will provide an array of accessories for all the female members of the bridal party. Mad Keen Motors is a family-owned business located in a suburb of London. It has been under the ownership of the Keen family for 35 years and has grown from a single mechanical repair shop to five locations that deal with body and mechanical repairs, vehicle storage and towing, washing and valeting and used car sales.
Our recycled waste will be targeted toward fertilizer manufacturers, nurseries, landscapers, farmers, government agencies, golf courses, and other. Portland Mobile Auto Inspectors is a mobile car inspection service for prospective used car buyers practicing due diligence. Portland Mobile Auto Inspectors travels around with all of the necessary test equipment to inspect used cars. Within one to one-and-a-half hours, the inspection is complete and the customer is given a detailed custom printout that indicates the tests performed and the results, thereby indicating the condition of the vehicle.
Quick and Dirty Auto Repair aims to offer high-quality auto repair services and a full range of auto parts. QDAR focuses on personalized service to its customers by offering convenience and rapid service.
Additionally, QDAR is technologically savvy with computerized monitoring of all parts inventory, to ensure that parts are always in stock, while keeping a balanced level of inventory to maximize inventory turnover.
Soapy Rides will be providing customers with three services: Soapy Rides has no true competitors that are trying to offer a high quality service for a reasonable rate.
Most are trying to compete on price alone. Fressen Catering is a kosher catering company. Fressen offers creative, colorful, and unusual food options for kosher as well as the traditional standbys.
The service offerings are quite a change relative to the existing kosher catering market which is quite stagnant. PC Repair will provide computer and technical consulting repairs, training, networking and upgrade service to local small businesses as well as home PC users. The company will focus on marketing, responsiveness, quality, and creating and retaining customer relations.
Clean Office Pros is a new cleaning service specializing in office cleaning and serving the Kansas City, Missouri area. The business will sell office cleaning and related services to businesses with office spaces of any size.
The business also offers office cleaning, floor treatment, carpet cleaning, and window cleaning for businesses with office space in the Kansas City area. San Francisco Limo is a limousine service serving customers with top quality transportation services using late model limousine sedans. City Taxi is a company whose mission is to provide reliable, timely, and safe taxi cab services by using complete, in-car credit and debit card access, along with computer-aided dispatch.
The company will establish its presence in the industry by acquiring an existing taxi cab association, Mighty Cab, a family-owned business that was formed 12 years ago. Integrity Auto Sales plans to provide a unique car buying experience to its customers.
One that focuses on customer satisfaction first. We understand that vehicle purchasing is a necessary, but sometimes unpleasant experience. Our goal is to provide the customer with an enjoyable, honest service by satisfying individual customers practical transportation needs with a quality product. Occasions strives to be the best choice of clients by helping to ease their event planning burden.
Through consistent, predictable professionalism, Occasions will ensure a worry and hassle-free event at a reasonable price. By combining old fashioned values, going the extra mile, and using cutting edge event-planning software, Occasions will lead the market, providing the same quality results, every time. CRP will offer two types of services, retreat training services as well as product launch event planning. The retreat training services will be either leadership development training or teaming skills training.
To be continued… We will keep updating this list until the world runs out of sample business plans! Click the course banner below or click here to get started with the course.
By John-Paul Iwuoha T John-Paul Iwuoha is an author, impact entrepreneur, business strategist and founder of Smallstarter Africa. He works with entrepreneurs and investors to start up and grow businesses in Africa.