An unwilled reflex or spasm is not voluntary and will not constitute actus reus. The defence Response is to include s. Either go GNU or go black-flag. It is not necessary to show that the case is exceptional or unusual. Wikileaks latest balls up: Why not improve your chances?
The balloons are withher posted by beerperson at 1: Everyone's Grandma celebrating last night posted by roomthreeseventeen at 1: There were some, yes, but honestly the schedules are worlds apart. The RNC did have an astronaut, yes, except she refused to endorse Trump on stage despite having such an endorsement in her prepared remarks. A good chunk of Congress refused to show up, with many claiming they were "too busy" and Sen.
Sasse saying he planned to go "watch some dumpster fires" instead. Rubio would only appear by video, and Cruz showed up to, well, not exactly endorse Trump. Their big celebrity was Scott Baio, who soon before the convention retweeted an image effectively calling Hillary something incredibly offensive. The lead-in speaker to Ivanka and Donald was a real estate developer who rambled on about a hotel deal he once did with Trump. And there were numerous segments that consisted of Trump employees telling us how great their boss is, along with long bits of musical filler.
It was an incredibly weak schedule last week. Compare that to just a short bit of tonight: Biden, Kaine, and Obama.
The contrast is obvious. There are nobody in Europe who are not aware by now how big of an idiot Trump has made of himself so far. How can you live in the US and miss it? Seriously though do they not run headlines past a panel of year-old boys or year-old gay men I guess for innuendo checks before posting The Washington Post knows clickbait when they see it and they are nowhere near too proud to exploit it. You've established a completely justifiable premise for kink-shaming.
In case anyone missed it: I just went and bought some buttons this morning. I've been super busy, but the DNC has been doing a good job so far at restoring my faith in humanity, which after the RNC was somewhat lacking.
I'm hoping to actually watch a bit of tonight live. The Washington Post knows clickbait when they see it and they are nowhere near too proud to exploit it. Well I clicked so good job WaPo I guess posted by tivalasvegas at 1: The criteria I outlined were prestige, honor, and service to the nation.
You're free to measure those however you like, but I stand by my statement, especially once the dishonor of supporting the fascist yam is accounted for. Don't get me wrong -- it's not that there weren't prestigious, honorable Republicans available, it's that so many of them refused to show up that the program really was full of a bunch of lightweights, with some actual heroes and dedicated public servants mixed in.
I said that, and I don't even know why. It used to be "Trumpmas! Krampus-like, if Krampus was an incompetent buffoon. You remember that Seinfeld episode where George realized that his instincts were incredibly poor, and that success lay in him doing the opposite? Trump is kind of like that. Except I don't think his instincts are poor; they are just counter-intuitive for a great many of us.
For Trump, success seems to lie in doing the opposite of what the instincts of everyone else would be. He said some bizarre, weird things today? The end result is the news media is having a field day covering him; not last night. His comments will keep his news coverage on par with the coverage of the DNC tonight. And from Trump's perspective, that's a win - his name is out there, and that is all that matters.
Because whatever he does, it sure never seems to chip into his base of support - worst case scenario is that he doesn't gain anybody new, best case is that he picks up a few voters he didn't have before. He's the living embodiment of the idea that there is no such thing as bad press. I loved how John Oliver described the RNC balloon drop as "an almost sarcastic amount of balloons" https: The DNC fight song OK, I'm all on board with that message, and mostly the song was well-executed.
But I don't think you should use "dumb dumb dumb dumb dumb" as a bassline unless you're doing it intentionally. But it's a crazy view into another, strange universe. They call themselves centipedes, they're convinced that James Comey, the director of the FBI, did not recommend charges against HRC because he was afraid she would have him killed as if the director of the fbi didn't command an army of armed and loyal factotums , they like what Trump said about Russia and the emails, they call everyone who doesn't like trump a cuck, and so on.
Did I mention they call themselves centipedes? I hvae no idea what it's supposed to mean. Anyway, that's where the AMA is happening so Why I'm voting for Trump and You should too posted by mfu at 1: They call themselves centipedes, The jokes write themselves. I don't even know what's real. They call themselves centipedes But they're humans tho right posted by beerperson at 1: It's no exaggeration to say that, if elected, Donald Trump would be the least qualified, least vetted, least tested person ever to become POTUS.
Presidents who'd never previously held elective office Eisenhower - former general, US Army Hoover - former sec. Arthur had previously held an un-earned gentleman's commission as a non-combat brigadier general during the US Civil War for about a year , and then various political patronage appointments as a member of the New York Republican political machine.
Said machine made him Garfield's running mate; he rose to the presidency a few months later when Garfield succumbed to his wounds following an assassination attempt by a disgruntled office seeker -- part of the same patronage system that got Arthur where he was. All of these men spent some part of their careers answerable to the people and the Constitution of the United States of America before becoming president. It has to do with a clip from an old nature documentary voiceover describing a centipede as "a nimble navigator" which somebody thought to put over Trump speech clips and somehow turn into a meme.
Try not to think about it too hard; the logic is just alien. One time, I was in a laundromat, having a conversation with some other folks there to kill the time.
All three of the other people there said, sincerely, they thought it was an inside job. Hearing how many people liked the DNC fight song gives me kinda the same feeling. And enjoy watching it. I know it was grade-A pandering to the choir, but the fight song makes me happy in a hopeful way that haven't I felt at any point during the run-up to the election, and also I got goosebumps when Adele Dazeem hit that high note.
She remembered the gavel! I just wonder whether Trump encouraging Russia to spy on the US might not be a bridge too far for some of Trump's older supporters. I am not even 50, and I remember vividly back when Russia was The Enemy. Or will they make it a case of always having been at war with Eastasia?
I understand the story, I know the facts, and it's still so far from sense that I don't understand. By November, Russian hackers could target voting machines If the intelligence community has indeed ascertained that Russia is to blame, our government needs to decide what to do in response.
This is difficult because the attacks are politically partisan, but it is essential. Retaliation is politically fraught and could have serious consequences, but this is an attack against our democracy. We need to confront Russian President Vladimir Putin in some way — politically, economically or in cyberspace — and make it clear that we will not tolerate this kind of interference by any government. Even more important, we need to secure our election systems before autumn. Decoding the Language of Trump Supporters posted by prize bull octorok at 1: It's more like we keep on being confused on what moves he's making because we are like "no that is a horrible move" but the thing is he's not playing chess, just checkers with chess pieces early in the campaign somebody made a pro-Trump video which was footage of a nature documentary of centipedes killing prey set to dubstep I'm not sure that explains anything has as much explanatory power as anything else I guess posted by tivalasvegas at 1: I've got some bad news for you about what a human centipede actually is.
This makes zero sense to me. Also much of the electorate is just flat out uninformed. Time and column inches are limited, so most major news outlets tend to settle on a few early front-runners and devote most of the coverage to them.
If surprise candidates do well early on, then they get the "dark horse" treatment that could reinforce the surprise candidates for a little while, but it has been rare for a true dark-horse candidate to secure a major party nomination. By virtue of fame, notoriety, and his big mouth, Trump got a lot more coverage than an equivalent, non-Trump candidate would have, which granted legitimacy to his campaign and created a perverted positive feedback loop.
I realize that on the lengthy list of comparisons that favor Obama over Trump, 'had the guts and the wherewithal to actually do an AMA on Reddit' versus 'lying about doing an AMA and instead staging a fake one for PR' is far, far down towards the bottom of the list, in terms of importance to their ability to hold office.
But it's so perfectly emblematic of Trump's candidacy, as a whole -- precisely because it's so wildly unimportant -- that he, of the Twitter braggadocio and opposition to 'political correctness' and safe spaces, is apparently unwilling to actually take un-screened questions from real people and instead prefers to stage-manage a simulacra of an AMA.
The Republican Party has nominated Now that's the kind of outfit you wear to sing the National Anthem! It's more like we keep on being confused on what moves he's making because we are like "no that is a horrible move" but the thing is he's not playing chess, just checkers with chess pieces Is he? Or is he playing gin rummy with checker pieces instead of cards? Is it PR if no one cares? I'm trying to picture the nightmare that would be explaining that concept to anyone I know off the innertubes and failing, even before you get to the centipedes part of the explanation.
He done good though! That high note was lovely. I am soooo excited about Obama's speech it's crazy. God damnit, those fucking horrible Diebold voting machines. And here I was hoping to not be drunk before the end of the work day.
This is going to be a hard, hard push for a contested election, something that Trump can use to drag down the effectiveness of a Hillary Presidency because she "stole it" posted by mrzarquon at 1: Now I'm picturing my elderly aunts fleeing in horror with their tiny manicured hands raised in appeal to the heavens for god's protection from electronic centipedes.
Can we not with the internet diagnoses? Using crazy as a shorthand for dismissing people's opinions is really not cool. What are people shouting? It sounds a bit like roll call? Would anyone outside of the internets even understand what an AMA is? That's why I find it so interesting -- surely it would have been easier to just go and do an actual AMA? Why go through these extra hoops? It's not as though he seems to put a lot of thought into answering questions at, say, press conferences witness today.
No distinct chorus of nays for Tim Kaine. I thought Busters were hanging their hats on this last bit of business. Bernie delegates crying out "roll call" regarding the VP nom.
Some might, but mostly they don't want Tim Kaine. Yes that was people chanting roll call even though there was only one name nominated for VP. By November, Russian hackers could target voting machines I was stunned at how btlasé some people in the last thread were about the very likely possibility that a foreign government was actively interfering in our elections.
OK, there's one decent thing. There is like zero chance that The Donald's hackers can out-hack Hillary Clinton's hackers especially now that she's tot Bernie's hackers on her side. I'll put cash money on Hillary if someone is stupid enough to give me theirs To be clear, they needed signatures apparently to put another name in nomination. They didn't bother to do that or couldn't get the signatures , but wanted a roll call vote anyway?
The claim here from Schneier is that Russian intelligence might have an interest in hacking the voting machines. Russian hacker is best hacker. Granted, we just got done with the loud protests over an apparent failure to issue VP nomination forms. All in all, it seems like the organizers' to keep things going smoothly are having the opposite effect. Remember campers, if you can't out rat-fuck your opponent, you don't deserve to win! Donald is an amateur. He's won the contest to lose to Hillary Clinton in Good career move for someone who isn't a politician.
I've seen this movie and we're going to need more burgundy leather dusters posted by beerperson at 1: There were claims yesterday that the DNC refused to accept the signatures and ignored them. And I guess if you don't have talent in house, that's what you have to do. Look what his in-house speechwriters delivered Help me, my partner is watching another Trump speech happening now where Trump just said, because of the DNC, "Carson never had a chance".
Time to leave the house! Fox don't judge me I peek at everything Fox? You don't get judged for Fox News. You don't get judged for looking outside the liberal infosphere. Here's the Trump centipede video. It mixes "Centipede" by Knife Party with Trump soundbites and clips. Though having watched this I'm not anything has been clarified. There's a little-known DNC bylaw which the Busters hope to exploit in which if they successfully nominate for VP the name 'Sernie Banders' then Clinton has no choice but to let Sanders lead the ticket posted by beerperson at 1: We're through the looking glass here, people!
Journalist a woman asks Trump if it's inappropriate to ask Russia or hackers to release emails. The National popular vote needs to be a blow out.
If the blowout is big enough and the polls are all clustered in a range, then fuckery with the vote will be exposed as an impossible outlier.
When elections are close and polls are all over the place then vote manipulation can happen. We have to blow this out. Actually, they all go together perfectly well. As strange as Trump has been over the past months and he has been amazingly strange , is it just me or has he actually gotten stranger over the last couple of weeks?
Here's the Trump centipede video yt I made about 40 seconds of over 7 minutes before bailing. This is the best proof I've ever seen that Andy Kaufman is still alive and punking all of us bitches. President Putin, great president or greatest president? If you're suggesting she has the NSA on her side yeah they can probably hang, which is probably the only time you'd catch me saying good for the NSA. I can't wait to get home and fire this up.
I hadn't looked at the lineups for Monday and Tuesday before I watched them, but I did look at today's. This is gonna be a big fucking night. Well, someone in a recent thread speculated that once he got his security briefing, he'd do everything he could to NOT win the presidency. This Russia stuff seems to fit that theory.
This bit of Trump-related news made me happy today: Maybe, but this most recent stuff is like the big speech scene in the sci-fi movie where the villain makes a weird gurgling cough and throws off his human disguise to reveal that he is actually a sentient yeast mold from a failed US Cold War Jello warfare experiment.
Yes, and it's just going to get worse. At some point he may actually lose a few votes. Eleanor Holmes Norton is up now! What was Lenin's line about being invested with dictatorial power? It makes one's head spin? He had a party affirming that he won, and he shut down the never trumpers and quashed all the opposition in the GOP. They're all paying attention to his whims.
His head is spinning. Let me say I do not believe any of the "establishment" would ever be involved in this kind of digital ratfucking. I love this woman. That, plus the bath salts posted by beerperson at 1: Now sit up and pay attention. Elizabeth Holmes Norton who you might remember for her legendary appearance on The Colbert Report back in Think "disgruntled ex-Diebold employees" posted by mikelieman at 1: I think people don't know that the DC Statehood movement is about spending our own local tax dollars freely.
My father is a conservative Republican who Metafilter would hate and who thinks DC Statehood would be a unconstitutional and even he was surprised by that. I love the DC Statehood movement. I hope it follows for the rest of our territories. Ok he mentioned ISIS. Will the GOP shut up now? Julian Assange is, like, totally neutral on this election, you guys.
My biggest fear is the next round of leaks. We know the Russians hacked the Clinton Foundation too. Once the source was established as bonafide, I'd release a second round with mostly legitimate emails and some carefully manufactured fakes to stir up more discord and conspiracy theories.
It wouldn't even matter if it was later determined to be fake, the damage would be done. I know that sounds very conspiracy theory-esque, but we're living in a world where the FSB drilled a hole into a lab to pass fake urine for Olympic doping tests, so it's not too unrealistic.
Second most highly voted AMA question for Trump: The hospitals receive a tax break yearly when they select minorities. There are over 10, doctors a year that are shut out of residency programs in the name of diversity. What will you do to curb this? No, once Treasonous Trump gets his security clearance, his speeches will be filled with equal proportions of exposed secrets and idiotic misinterpretations of what he was told. Those misinterpretations hopefully will offset some of the National Security damage his credibility is deteriorating so quickly foreign governments may not be able to take advantage of this.
And it'll all be part of my prediction of him losing votes every time he opens his mouth That is to say, lucky for Trump that it's not a real AMA. Can't decide whether to watch the trainwreck or log out. That's a lovely fantasy, oneswellfoop, I'd love whatever happy pills you're on.
He will say something totally idiotic and fabricated, he will be called on it as fabricated, and he'll say nuh-uh, I know things , I've got clearance , you don't, neener! Is this the right thread to discuss a Trump AMA? Can we focus on the DNC, instead? So I've already had one Facebook acquaintance claim that Trump wasn't asking Russia to hack US servers, he just asked them to "return what was stolen" the emails. I was a bit flabbergasted, then saw a Media Matters tweet a few minutes later pointing out that this phrasing was used by Tucker Carlson on Fox News.
So the talking points are already out there. Definitely no "Surely this" moment here. Damn, survivors of gun violence tonight, including Sandy Hook and Emmanuel Church. That's my deepest fear as well. Assange keeps hinting about a leak that will send Hillary to prison. I don't believe there is such a real email, but a skilled fabrication could totally derail the election. As always, William S. Burroughs has a relevant quote: Personally, I would regard such an individual with deep suspicion.
I have just petted my cat: He is a traitor to the human race. We're the same women. I assume Assange doesn't have anything, since he hasn't released it. I hope you are all right, but the notion that Trump will all of a sudden start losing support is odd. He has done nothing but gain support for the past year. I'm not going to fight the data anymore. There is no "surely this" with Trump.
You see that, right? There isn't going to be some crazy thing he says that will lose him support. At this point the responsible parties, and the only ones who can make it stop, are Paul Ryan, Mitch McConnel, and every other Republican "leader" who has said Trump is better than Hillary. Until you see those folks rebuke him AND start to support Hillary, this will continue.
Trump talking Putin goes from "he called Obama the n-word" to "I hope he likes me" in 20 seconds. I don't think Assange has anything real.
We're just talking timing on a falsified dump. Perhaps the Trump stuff can stay in the Day 2 thread and we can actually talk about the DNC convention in here?
He wants to hurt Clinton as much as possible. I expect selective leaks throughout the election with a dump a few days before election day. OK, can anyone come up with a Hillary version of the Cognitive Dissonance game with rebuttals?
Burroughs, real centipedes are cool. Yeah, I've never been more worried about the so called "October surprise" than I am this year.
Wasn't there already evidence of tampering modification, creation out of whole cloth in the first e-mail release? Any further releases should be assumed compromised. Critical thinking skills are not for everyone, I guess. The closer it gets to the election, the less the federal government will do about anything that looks shady. So as long as Trump still looks worse, she'll win.
Maybe even the best troller. Well, it's good to know Wikileaks has become a vehicle for Assange to use to settle personal political scores. I still think Clinton will win. The namesake of my old airport! What does this mean? A Google search turns up nothing. That picture of Mike Honda. I miss having him as my congressman. Ya Got Trump Trouble! I'd like to personally request a significant reduction in the amount of satire around here.
It is often hard to tell what is and is not satire, especially online, in text-only forums like this. If you have something to say, please say it clearly and distinctly. It's from a Podcast, Alice Isn't Dead. Thistle Man is the antagonist. Hacker culture people are no way showing up for Hillary because of her stances on encryption and surveillance and IP. Wikileaks latest balls up: It's hard to tell if you're being sarcastic or not. Why such lukewarm support for restoring the Voting Rights Act?
What is the shouting going on during the AAPI speakers? Even straight-up mainstream news can't resist the snark now. Trump, who once called on Robert Pattinson to break up with Twilight co-star Kristen Stewart, is not exactly known for holding back his thoughts on what others should do.
So i'm still floored that Judy Chu is the first Chinese American woman elected to congress. Took a while eh, i'm tearing up about it ahh ;;;;; posted by one teak forest at 2: I think a lot of people haven't been paying attention to how fucked voting rights are getting again. Knowing whether something is satire or not is really quite simple.
If it's less absurd than the last thing you heard Trump say, it was satire. If it's more absurd than what you think he could have said, it's a direct quote of his that you aren't yet aware of. First openly gay PoC elected to Congress: D posted by gilrain at 2: I think it's just early in the day, maybe not everybody has shown up yet. The crowd noise I'm hearing on the YouTube feed sounds like it's probably much louder in the room, just not coming through over the mics.
I'm seriously wondering if a lot of journalists didn't get together and have a bit of a meeting. Let's give him that much rope, and then some more, to see who else is willing to share the noose! Has anyone else heard this?
It is worth watching, if you aren't already. I dunno, I think that there's some possibility that if Wikileaks just has more of the same, they can dump it in October and it won't do much.
Has their most recent one really done much other than render people fractious at the convention? How many people who were seriously going to vote for Hillary are not going to because of this?
If they have something genuinely terrible, that might change the game, but if it's just "Democratic Party officials discuss acting improperly, to no one's particular surprise", will it really convince anyone that a Trump administration is a good idea? I mean, faked leaks would be really bad, but it would also come out eventually and that would spell the end of Wikileaks. That's the only scenario I can envision that justifies the kid-gloves approach the media has taken so far to Trump.
He puts eyeballs on the ads. But Assange assumes that would happen after President Trump gives him a full pardon and a job as Federal Transparency Officer Probably too late to avoid interfering with election results, though, so it would still be a win for them. CNN is reporting that Kaine didn't get a formal nominating speech from Rep. Bobby Scott where someone else stands up and says nice things about him and puts his name into nomination, as is traditional due to fear of booing.
You know, all this talk about Russian spies in the US makes me wish I hadn't binge-watched the first few seasons of The Americans on Netflix or read the post here about the real-life spies the show is based on. Wasn't that essentially the point? Like, they released those leaks that would cause fractures at the DNC right before the DNC - seems like a reasonable strategy. Nobody but Assange and his mystery hacker know what else they have.
The Daily Beast has it up. I understand this message of "trans rights the right thing to do, and they're good for business" but I do wish it could stand without the conjunction. That's what CNN twitter says. Stupid, if true; it's not like they aren't going to be any less whiny during Kaine's actual speech. I feel like the tech entrepreneurs feel really out of their depth when they can't use cat gifs in their presentations. Can I just note here that every single speaker gets a different bit of walk out music from the house band, while the GOP house band only knew like five songs?
I do appreciate that both entrepreneurs who have spoken so far have come from a tech hub other than Silicon Valley. It's a great episode!
Yeah, but I'm still hoping that Assange wouldn't burn his own organization to the ground purely to install Trump. Maybe he would, I don't know. These are scary times. I really wish that people with legitimate grudges against the US government would think through the actual, lived consequences of installing the Worst Possible President. If you are committed to the life of an underground hacker-type person, sure, fine, it probably won't make much difference whether you're running from a Democrat or a Republican, and probably you don't want ordinary things like a stable living situation, kids, etc, plus you presumably have powerful allies who can help you get, like, cool underground doctors to help you if you get sick.
I'm not knocking that if it's your thing, but just like any specialized profession, it's not the answer to everyone's problems. We really and truly are living in the era of post-factual politics. It's bizarre, surreal and frightening: The best thing Trump has going for him right now is that the ongoing story of a major party nominee who has unclear financial ties to Russia, significant alignment with Russian policy, and effectively encourages Russian cyberattacks, sounds so absurd that voters may find it hard to believe.
Okay, Mayor de Blasio, what do you want for your walkup music? That great Santana song. Black Magic Woman, okay, we'll— DB: No, the other—the one he did with the other guy. No, no the one with, you know. The Blink guy. They're a married couple, so it's not much of a coincidence. Kinda getting weary of the same litany of Hillary Clinton's accomplishments from speaker after speaker. Maybe these early sessions could be focused on down ticket races and candidates?
I didn't realize that, thanks! Disability rights take center stage at DNC. Gaysian analysis is all about decision-making based on posteriors. There are many including Assange with grudges legitimate or not who would genuinely benefit from installing The Worst Possible President. After all, when he gets the power to fire all the Civil Servants, he has to hire sycophants from somewhere Is the band playing Somewhere on an electric handsaw? I've been knitting a lace doily while watching both conventions.
It has an acorn motif in it, so it'll be a suitable memento for this political time: I'm not even USian. But I can see you from my house. This is a nice tribute, but the music is horrible. It sounds like a parody of an In Memoriam segment. Yeah, I'm not sure who decided that a harmonica cover of the song when Tony's dying in West Side Story was the one to go with. What scares me is that apparently NY Mag and perhaps even hypothetical foreign groups can read the comments down here.
I was under the impression I was talking to myself here and y'all were just other parts of my brain who came to keep me company. Thanks for posting this , persona au gratin. Pretty sure it was Tim. I haven't really gotten the bolo tie look to catch on.
This guy is great. Sarcasm tag posted by Yowser at 2: Down Ticket Shout Outs! Christ is running again. We learned about falsified emails in the existing leak less than week after it happened. The real issue is whether it matters that the falsifications are discovered at all, not how timely the discovery will be.
There are some important exceptions to this general rule: Applications for warrants can be made by state or federal police as well as a number of agencies including the Crime Commission and the ICAC s.
Normally applications for a warrant must be made in writing, supported by an affidavit except in urgent cases: Applications are made to judges or nominated members of the AAT s. Applications are to include s. Matters of which a judge must be satisfied for a warrant for a class 1 offence. Class 1 offences are defined in s. Matters of which a judge must be satisfied for a warrant for a class 2 offence. Serious offences are defined in s. For the most part, they are offences carrying a maximum sentence of more than 7 years imprisonment.
If a telephone intercept has not been authorised by warrant, and is not authorised by one of the exceptions referred to above, it is inadmissible in evidence: It is important to note that this is not subject to any discretion. Applications for Search Warrants. A police officer can apply normally in writing for a search warrant setting out the grounds for believing that on premises there is something that is connected with an indictable, firearms, or drug, or child pornography offence or something stolen: If the issuing justice does not record the reasons for the warrant it is invalid: The search warrant must record on its face the offence to which the investigation related: A reference to superceded legislation will not invalidate the warrant as long as there is reference to an identifiable offence: The warrant expires after 72 hours unless extended: There must be a report back to the justice: An occupier's notice must be handed to an occupier over Anything mentioned in the warrant and anything reasonably thought to be connected with any offence may be seized: Any person in the premises reasonably believed to have a thing mentioned in the warrant may be searched: There are specific police powers relating to 'drug premises'.
If the warrant is granted the police have the power to search the premises and any person found on the premises: Generally the provisions for the execution of ordinary search warrants described above apply: Police may only enter premises without a warrant if there is: Police can now apply for a notice to produce addressed to a financial institution to produce records: The situation in relation to entrapment has been changed so far as state offences in New South Wales are concerned by the Law Enforcement Controlled Operations Act The definition section makes it clear that a 'controlled activity' is an illegal activity s.
A law enforcement officer can make an application in writing or, in urgent cases, orally to the chief executive officer of a law enforcement agency usually the Commissioner of Police for an authority to conduct a controlled operation. The application must include the plan of the proposed operation, the alleged nature of the criminal activity or corrupt conduct being investigated, the nature of the 'controlled activity' to be used, and a statement about whether there has been any earlier application s.
The chief executive officer may authorise the controlled operation if satisfied that. The power to issue an authority can be delegated but only to an officer of or above the rank of superintendent s. A written statement of reasons should be kept by the Chief Executive Officer s. Importantly the legislation prohibits inducing or encouraging a person to commit criminal activity or corrupt conduct that the person could not reasonably be expected to engage in unless so induced or encouraged.
It also prohibits conduct likely to seriously endanger the health and safety of any person, or cause serious damage to property s. In Gedeon v Commissioner of the NSW Crime Commission  HCA 43 it was held that this provision was breached when the Crime Commission authorised the sale of 6 kilos of cocaine knowing it was unlikely to be recovered. A law enforcement official and a civilian authorised to engage in a 'controlled activity' does not constitute an offence s. Entrapment in Commonwealth Proceedings There are similar provisions in ss.
Once again, the Act does not apply of a person is intentionally induced to commit a crime, and the person would not otherwise have committed that offence or an offence of that kind s. Police should not question a child suspected of committing an offence unless there is a 'support person' present not a police officer: In the Northern Territory special rules have been formulated for interrogation of Aboriginals.
For example there should be a 'prisoners friend' present, the caution should be read back by the accused, the questions should not be leading, etc. These rules are called the Anunga Rules: Anunga 11 ALR Under the Code of Practice for Crime, the custody manager is required to ensure that Aboriginal legal aid has been contacted: The defendant should be asked to read the interview aloud. The senior officer available not connected with the investigation should ask the defendant if it was a voluntary statement etc.
The defendant should be supplied with a copy: When a suspect makes a 'confession, admission or statement' in preliminary questioning, the police officer should 'record it in full in your notebook' Code of Practice for CRIME pp. The suspect should be asked to sign the notebook. Once a person has been charged they should only be interviewed when necessary to minimize loss or harm to some person, or about new matters, or to recover property: According to the Code of Practice for CRIME, a person in custody has a 'right' to communicate with a friend, relative or legal guardian: The Bail Act commenced on 20 May I recommend a very good paper written by Lucinda Opper on the new act which can be found here.
Subsequent to Lucinda's paper there have been some significant amendments to the Bail Act. Under the Bail Act , there can be three types of bail applications. An 'interested person' who can make a variation application is an accused, a prosecutor, a complainant in a domestic violence offence, a person for whose benefit an apprehended violence order was made, or the Attorney-General s. There is a right to release on bail for offences for which the maximum penalty is a fine only, and offences under the Summary Offences Act apart from certain specified offences: Where there is an appeal from the District Court or Supreme Court to the Court of Criminal Appeal, or to the High Court, bail can only be granted if there are 'special' or 'exceptional' circumstances: Under the previous Bail Act, it was held that in practice this means it is necessary to show that the appeal is most likely to succeed: Where the appeal is against a sentence imposed in the District Court, it needs to be shown at least that if bail is not granted the whole sentence will be served before the matter is heard in the CCA, or that there is an overwhelming likelihood that the appeal will succeed in the CCA: Tyler 80 A Crim R It is overstating the case to say that a succesful appeal must be virtually inevitable to obtain appeals bail: The CCA has the power to grant bail: Where a bail authority is considering a case of an accused who is over 18, charged with a 'show cause' offence, the bail authority must refuse bail unless the accused shows cause why his or her detention is not justified: Once the accused has 'shown cause', the bail authority must then make a bail decision in accordance with the 'unacceptable risk' test: As to the 'unacceptable risk' test see below.
In summary, they include:. For 'show cause' offences, the applicant must demonstrate on the balance of probabilities that his or her detention is not justified, and that test is separate from the 'unacceptable risk' test: However, in many cases the considerations for each test may be the same: It is not necessary to show special or exceptional circumstances in order to show cause: A single powerful factor, or a powerful combination of factors may show cause: Section 16 Bail Act contains a flow chart of decisions for 'show cause offences' under the Bail Act:.
Section 16 Bail Act contains a flow chart of decisions under the Bail Act:. For other offences, the first issue which arises a 'bail authority' an authorised police officer, or justice, or judge determining bail is assess any 'bail concerns' of the defendant:. In determining assessing any 'bail concerns', the court is to consider the following matters, and only the following matters s.
It has been stressed that the length of time the accused is likely to spend in custody is a significant matter: The views of the police about whether or not bail should be granted are irrelevant: In determining whether or not the offence is to be regarded as a serious offence, the following matters are to be considered s.
Some very recent cases have said that the onus is on the prosecution to establish that there is an unacceptable risk if the accused is granted bail: Cases in other jurisdictions with a similar test to the 'unacceptable risk' test have stated that although the risk must be more than a tenuous one or the worst fear, it is not necessary for the prosecution to establish that the risk is more probable than not: Where there is no unacceptable risk, the bail authority must either release the defendant without bail, dispense with bail, or grant unconditional bail s.
Where there is are 'unacceptable risk', can it be sufficiently mitigated by bail conditions? Where the bail authority has determined that there is an 'unacceptable risk', the bail authority must then determine whether or not the unacceptable risk can be sufficiently mitigated by bail conditions. Again, it has been held that the onus is on the prosecution, on the balance of probabilities, to establish that the 'unacceptable risk' cannot be mitigated: If the 'unacceptable risk' cannot be mitigated by bail conditions, bail can be refused: Bail conditions can only be imposed to mitigate an unacceptable risk.
Bail conditions can only be imposed if s. A conduct requirement is a requirement that a person do or refrain from doing anything, but not providing security: A security requirement is a requirement that the accused or one or more other persons agree to forfeit a specified amount of money if the accused fails to appear in court, with or without security: A security requirement is only to be imposed to mitigate the risk of the accused not appearing in court s.
A character acknowledgment is an acknowledgment that a person is acquainted with the accused and regards him as a responsible person who is likely to comply with bail: A court may impose an accomodation requirement on a child to the effect that bail will not be granted until the authorities have made suitable arrangements for the accomodation of the child: A bail condition is a pre-release requirement if the condition must be complied with before the person is released on bail. The only bail conditions which may be pre-release requirements are s.
A court may impose an enforcement condition, requiring the defendant to comply with specified kinds of police directions to monitor compliance: The Local Court and the District Court can make a decision about appeals bail after conviction if the accused has not yet appeared in a higher court: The Local Court can consider bail after committing an accused for sentence or trial to a higher court, but not after the accused has appeared in the District Court or Supreme Court: Where a court has refused bail, it is not to hear a further bail application for bail unless s.
The purposes of the Bail Act include a requirement that bail authorities determinaing a bail application have regard to the presumption of innocence and the general right to be at liberty: This suggests that the onus of proof is on the prosecution.
The burden of proof is on the balance of probabilities: The rules of evidence do not apply in bail applications: If the Crown appeals against a decision to grant bail and immediately so informs the court, the decision is stayed for 3 business days or until the Supreme Court decides otherwise s. There is no 'principle of restraint' in relation to applications for detention made in the CCA after Supreme Court bail has been granted: What follows is simply some suggestions about the basics of appearing in the Crime Commission.
Appearing for an Witness in the Crime Commission. A person giving evidence before the Crime Commission can be legally represented s. A particular legal representative can be refused leave to appear if the Commissioner believes on reasonable grounds and in good faith that such representation will prejudice its representation s.
The Crime Commission can and usually does as a matter of course direct that evidence before it, and even the fact that a witness has given evidence before it, not be 'published': Evidence Before the Commission. The rules of evidence do not apply in proceedings s.
In particular, objections based on the privilege against self-incrimination do not apply: Legal professional privilege does apply: So does the privilege attached to religious confessions: By far the most important thing to know about proceedings in the Crime Commission is that evidence given by a witness is not admissible in proceedings against that witness except for proceedings for perjury and related offences if the witness objects: The Commissioner can declare that all answers or all answers of a particular class will be regarded as being given under objection: Failing to attend when served with a summons, or failing to take the oath, or failing to answer questions, is an offence which carries 20 penalty units or 2 years gaol: The requirements of proof of a failure to take an oath or affirmation have been strictly construed in Fehon v Domican A Crim R Providing the prosecution with transcripts of an accused's evidence from the Crime Commission.
The High Court has held that where the evidence of an accused who has given evidence before the Crime Commission about an alleged offence has been supplied to the investigating police and the prosecution, any resulting trial will give rise to a miscarriage of justice: Lee v the Queen  HCA The Crime Commission Act has been amended to permit the Crime Commission to seek leave of the Supreme Court to compulsorily examine an accused person about an offence: At least before a person is charged, the prosecution is entitled to have access to the transcript of the accused's evidence at ICAC: What Offences are Summary Offences?
Commencing Proceedings An information for a purely summary offence must be laid within 6 months of the offence being committed: Importantly, the 6 month time limit does not apply to indictable matters being dealt with summarily. However, if the matter is a penalty notice matter and the defendant has elected to have the matter dealt with in the Local Court, the time limit is extended to 12 months: The power to ignore defects in the information under s.
The information must contain all the essential elements of the offence: Query if a charge can be withdrawn by an informant without being withdrawn dismissed: A magistrate has no power to recharge: Suters v Harrington [CN ]. A magistrate can order a stay of proceedings: Service of a Brief. In all summary proceedings except those for which a penalty notice may be issued, if the defendant pleads not guilty the prosecution must serve on the defendant a copy of the brief of evidence, including all witness statements and proposed documentary exhibits, 14 days before the hearing or such other time as the magistrate determines s.
If the brief is not served, the magistrate may dispense with service, adjourn the proceedings s. In determining whether or not to refuse to admit the evidence the magistrate is exercising a discretionary judgement and should weigh up the competing policy considerations including the quick and efficient disposal of criminal proceedings on the one hand and the public's interest in prosecuting offenders: It has been held that where a defendant is not on bail, it is not necessary for the defendant to be personally present during a hearing if he or she is legally represented: Refusal of an adjournment to a defendant can result in a procedural unfairness: Where a defendant has been refused legal aid there is a right of appeal to the Legal Aid Review Committee s.
Where a defendant has appealed to the legal Aid Review Committee, or intends to so appeal, the court must adjourn the proceedings if the appeal is bona fide and not vexatious or frivolous or intended to delay proceedings unless there are special circumstances: Prima facie the existence of an appeal or an intention requires the adjournment.
Open, Closed, and Non-Publication Orders. Generally, summary proceedings are to be in open court, that is open to the public and the media: This general rule is subject to some important statutory and common law exceptions. In particular, under the Court Suppresion and Non-Publication Orders Act courts can make suppression or non-publication orders as to the identity of the accused, a witness, or any party to proceedings, or as to the evidence in proceedings, for a limited period.
In sexual assault cases in particular in this context including indecent assault , the court can close the court s. Such an order can include suppression of the name of the accused: In a decision about the predecessor of this section, it was held that the interests of the accused were relevant in determining whether or not to make an order forbidding publication: At common law, the power to make a non-publication order was limited.
The name of an accused can be suppressed if it is necessary to secure the proper administration of justice: It was held that the District Court had no power to order the non-publication of the fact of a verdict even if there were to be later trials of the same accused: An argument that the defence has the right to address last in summary proceedings has been rejected: Costs Normally costs will not be awarded to a successful defendant unless the investigation was unreasonable or the proceedings were initiated without reasonable cause: An adjournment can be granted on condition that the Crown pays costs: Le Bouriscot PD .
Indictable Proceedings Dealt with Summarily. Indictable proceedings may dealt with summarily if they a Table 1 or Table 2 offence. The election cannot be made after the evidence commences or the facts are tendered s. Where an election is made the maximum penalty is generally 2 years imprisonment s. A magistrate cannot impose a cumulative sentence on a prisoner who is serving a sentence which would mean that the new sentence would expire more than five years after the existing sentenced commenced: Table 1 Table 1 offences are to be dealt with summarily unless the prosecutor or the defendant elects section Criminal Procedure Act.
They are generally more serious than Table 2 offences. Table 2 offences are to be dealt with summarily unless the prosecutor elects s. They are generally the less serious offences. A committal is an administrative proceeding in the Local Court to determine whether or not a person charged with an indictable offence should be committed for trial or sentence in the Supreme Court or District Court s.
The magistrate hearing the committal must set a timetable for the prosecution to serve a copy of the brief including statements of all witnesses on the defendant, and for the defendant to indicate which witnesses are required to give oral evidence s. If a witness is not required to give oral evidence, the witness' statement can be tendered.
As a result in if a witness gives damaging evidence against the accused, which evidence is in dispute, it is always preferable to require that witness to give evidence at committal. Even if nothing is achieved in cross-examination, the simple fact of the witness having to give an account on oath creates a potential prior inconsistent statement. Requiring Witnesses for Cross-examination The magistrate should not require a witness in an offence involving violence eg attempted murder, reckless wounding, reckless inflict grievous bodily harm, abduction, robbery, sexual assault to give evidence unless there are 'special reasons in the interests of justice': The phrase 'in the interests of justice' has been held in another context to refer to incorporate 'as a paramount consideration that an accused person should have a fair trial': Chapman v Gentle A Crim R Special reasons may include where the Crown case is weak, ID in issue, inconsistent versions, victim's willingness to testify: Baines v Gould 67 A Crim R Special reasons may include where the complainant in a sexual assault case is vague about the dates of the offences: This applies to indictable matters which can be dealt with summarily unless summary jurisdiction is actually offered: Kant PD , CN .
For other types of offences, the magistrate should not require a witness to give evidence unless there are 'substantial' reasons in the interests of justice: Kennedy 94 A Crim R It is not necessary to show that the case is exceptional or unusual.
It may be that substantial reasons could be shown in a majority of cases: It is necessary to show that the reasons 'have substance in the context of the nature of committal proceedings and the provisions of the Justices Act relating to them': Losurdo A Crim R If the parties agree that a witness be required to attend, the magistrate must so order: They can also include a case where the matters to be the subject of cross-examination go only to the exercise of the discretion of the trial judge and thus strictly outside the jurisdiction of the magistrate: The availability of 'Basha' type voir dires and pre-trial applications at trial is no justification for not permitting cross-examination at the committal: The magistrate needs to consider separately in relation to each witness whether the witness should be required: Hanna v Kearney 5 Crim LN .
It is not possible to define the boundaries of "substantial reasons" in this context: Losurdo, C of A, pp , A potential narrowing of the issues to be determined at trial, if the defendant is committed, is within the term; so also is the possibility of establishing the foundation for a challenge to the admission or admissibility of evidence Hanna p 8; Losurdo , C of A pp ; the possibility of significantly undermining the credibility of a Crown witness Losurdo, C of A p ; clarification of the evidence proposed to be called so as to avoid a defendant being taken by surprise at a trial Losurdo , C of A, p ; and the opportunity of gaining relatively precise knowledge of the case against the defendant Hanna, p 5.
Because of its brief nature, this statement will not be as elegantly expressed as the full statement of the principles in earlier decisions.
Secondly, I will not attempt to summarise every principle arising from previous authority. Thirdly, I will emphasise, where necessary, matters that are of significance to the present dispute. I take the relevant principles to be as follows: A witness cannot be required for cross-examination if the Crown indicates that the Crown no longer relies on the evidence: Where a witness has been required for cross-examination because of particulars matters, normally cross-examination will be restricted to those matters.
When a witness is required to give evidence in a paper committal, the prosecution is not entitled to merely tender the statement of the witness in chief unless the parties consent, or if the magistrate is satisfied that there are substantial reasons in the interests of justice why this should be done: The discretion to reject evidence should not be exercised: Generally, committal proceedings are to be in open court, that is open to the public and the media: In sexual assault cases in particular in this context indecent assault , the court can close the court s.
At common law, the power to make non-publication orders is more limited. At the close of the prosecution case in a committal the magistrate must determine whether or not there is a prima facie case: At the conclusion of all the evidence this may be immediately after; it is very unusual for the defence to call evidence at a committal , the magistrate must then determine whether or not 'there is a reasonable prospect that a jury would convict': If the magistrate decides that there is a reasonable prospect that a jury would convict, the defendant is committed for trial to either the District or the Supreme Court.
If the magistrate decides that there is no reasonable prospect that a jury would convict, the magistrate must discharge the defendant.
Magistrates are not precluded from making their own assessment of the evidence and of the credibility of witnesses: The assessment can take into account a prediction of whether the trial judge will exclude evidence in the exercise of his discretion: The magistrate is required to give adequate reasons for a decision and failure to do so will constitute an error of law: Costs The application for costs must be made on the day when the charge is dismissed: Fosse 42 A Crim R Costs will only be awarded if the proceedings were initiated without reasonable cause or bad faith or the investigation was unreasonable or improper: There is no power to award costs in commitals under the Costs in Criminal Cases Act: Lack of Proper Committal.
If a magistrate declines to commit an ex officio indictment can still be presented: Lack of a proper committal does not of itself entitle a stay of the trial: The Crown is not obliged to frame the indictment in terms of the counts in the committal: Effect of a No Bill A no bill will only justify a stay of later proceedings if there is a degree of double jeopardy such as a case being no billed during the course of the trial: In particular if there is a no bill after discharge at committal, the Crown will not be preventd from filing a further ex officio indictment: Police who search an advocate's papers may be in contempt of court even if they believe that it contains documents suspected of being stolen: Following a reader's suggestion, I have prepared a Local Court flow chart.
Trial Procedure and Appeals. Counsel calling upon the subpoena should be able to identify with precision the legitimate forensic purpose for which the document is sought: It must be 'on the cards' that the documents would assist the defence case. A report by a principal Crown witness about the case is an example of such a document, even if nothing is known about its contents: Alister at , Prima facie anything which might provide for proper and fruitful cross-examination is allowable: For example, in a case where the prosecution relied on only a small proportion of a large group of a large group of intercepted calls, there was held to be a legitimate forensic purpose in requiring production of the other tapes: Regina v Taylor A Crim R It is not a 'legitimate forensic purpose' to want to check if the Law Enforcement Controlled Operations Act has been complied with: A subpoena will be set aside if it is too wide, for example if it requires production of all documents relating to a particular subject area Small 38 SR NSW although the words 'relating to' in themselves are not necessarily fatal: Once the documents are produced it is too late to take this objection: When public interest immunity is claimed, the court must weigh up the public interest in non-disclosure with the public interest in the administration of justice.
In a criminal case it is sufficient if the accused can establish that the documents will materially assist his case: Special Classes of Public Interest Immunity. Some classes of evidence will not be required to be disclosed unless the evidence is necessary to establish the innocence of the accused: It seems that costs cannot be ordered in favour of a party who successfully opposes production of documents under subpoena: Normally an unrepresented accused should be granted an adjournment if he can prove that it was through no fault of his own: Lack of an adequate interpreter may suffice to quash a conviction: Saraya 70 A Crim R Where the Crown seeks an adjournment, the court can tell the Crown that the adjournment will not be granted unless the Crown agrees to pay costs: Moseley 65 A Crim R Constitutional Guarantee of Jury Trial.
Verdicts must be unanimous: This does not mean that there must be 12 jurors: A person can elect to be tried by judge alone if the DPP consents: The judge alone election must be made no later than 28 days before the trial, except by leave of the court: The election is made by the accused signing a Judge Alone Election under s.
If the DPP does not consent to the judge alone procedure, the judge may still order a judge alone trial if the accused consents and it is in the interests of justice to do so: The provision states that the court may refuse the application if the crial will involve the application of community standards, such as reasonableness, negligence, indecency, obscenity, or dangerousness s.
A judge can also order a judge alone trial if there is a substantial risk of jury tampering: Where the accused seeks a judge alone trial, and the prosecution opposes it, there is no presumption in favour of a judge alone trial, nor does the accused have a burden of proof to establish that there should be a judge alone trial, although there is an evidentiary onus: The fact that the accused elects to be tried by judge alone is a relevant factor in determining whether or not a judge alone trial would be in the interests of justice: Regina v Simmons and Moore No.
There is no consensus in the cases that where there are issues of credibility that factor militates strongly in favour of a jury trial: In Redman the Court of Criminal Appeal held that it was an error of law to reject an application for a judge alone trial on the basis of an assumption that a jury was a superior tribunal of fact in a word against word case at para . There cannot be a judge alone trial in a prosecution under a Commonwealth law, because of s.
The accused can withdraw his consent to a judge alone trial at any time before trial by signing and filing an Election under s. It appears that an accused cannot withdraw his election to be tried judge alone after the trial has commenced: The judgment justifying a verdict in a judge alone trial must refer to the relevant principles of law including warnings of which a jury would be directed to take into account: A judge sitting in a judge alone trial can give himself a Prasad direction, that is a direction that he can return a verdict of not guilty at any stage, including before the defence case and addresses: Stay of Proceedings A permanent stay of proceedings will only be granted in an extreme case: It is necessary to show that the continuation of proceedings would involve an involve unacceptable injustice or unfairness, or be so unfairly and unjustifiably oppressive as to constitute an abuse of process: A stay of proceedings until particulars were supplied was upheld in Compston PD .
A temporary stay of proceedings was granted where there had been considerable publicity about similar but unrelated sexual assault allegations in Re K  NSWCCA A long delay in instituting proceedings of itself even of over 30 years will not justify a stay, unless there is evidence of prejudice to the accused: A stay of proceedings was granted when a matter was not reached 5 times and witnesses and evidence disappeared: Nicholson 5 Crim LN .
In The Queen v Edwards ALR the High Court allowed an appeal against a stay of proceedings in a 6 year old case where the exhibits had gone missing. Duplicity No one count in an indictment should charge more than one offence or it is duplicitous: This applies to individual acts of sexual intercourse: Khouzame and Saliba A Crim R Each element of the offence must be stated in the indictment: Mai 60 A Crim R An indictment can contain mutually exclusive or inconsistent counts: Thomson and Dann A Crim R The Crown is required to present an indictment within 4 weeks after committal: However the court has a discretion to permit the trial to proceed even if the indictment is filed out of time: The time for presentation of an indictment can be extended by order of the court, but cannot be extended after the time for filing an indictment has expired: If the indictment is not presented within the relevant time, the court may proceed with the trial, adjourn the proceedings, or take such other action as the court thinks fit.
The indictment must be filed in the court registry and a copy must be served on the accused or his legal representative within 14 days of filing the indictment: After an indictment is presented, it may not be amended unless the accused consents or with leave of the court: The prohibition applies to substituting a fresh indictment: It also applies to ex officio indictments: The indictment can be amended at nearly any time during a trial if the amendment does not cause an injustice to the accused s.
Lewis 63 A Crim R 18 at In a single trial, there can only be one indictment: Swansson and Henry A Crim R If the indictment is signed by a private Crown prosecutor not so authorised it seems few private Crowns are so authorised , any trial or conviction which follows is a nullity: In cases where there is no order for pre-trial disclosure, there are still limited requirements for pre-trial disclosure.
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Other interests are history, current affairs, modern art, and architecture, gardening and natural history. I also have no time for fools and little time for the false crap we're all supposed to pretend we haven't noticed, or the games we're supposed to play. I will 'bite the hand that feeds' to remind it why it feeds. View my complete profile. Sunday, September 16, A is for Archive Material.
I had a fancy a while ago years ago according to the drawing to send some stuff to the readers hints page of a modelling magazine, and knocked this up as a first attempt! Needless to say I never sent it - application is not an aspergics' strong point, we're good at ideas, not so good at applying them!
I drew it on blue graph paper as blue used to be lost in the reproduction process for plans and drawings, although; why I thought a modelling magazine would have thermal blue-print equipment is anyone's guess, but as technology has - in any event - moved-on somewhat, it's now stuck with the hundreds of blue lines being read digitally, although I'm pleased to see most of the Tippex another near-dead tech'! Also it's not so much a conversion or modelling-tip, as a graphic explanation of a bodge!
It used to wind me up, just putting the tracks on a new kit was often enough to snap the drive-sprocket or idler-wheel or both! So I got to the point where I was doing this with new kits as I constructed them from the box. I don't know if it was my imagination, but I seem to recall Airfix was the worst offender, with Esci a close second! This Russian KV 'Heavy' from Esci a nice, neat, clean little kit needed the rod-trick on the rear sprockets and I should have done the front at the same time!
I notice it's lost an MG in the move, there is quite a bit of damage in the kit cabinet, one of the guys helping me tipped it on its back because he'd seen the danger of the drawers falling out and all the whitemetal and resin kits rather crushed the plastic ones as they shot back! I have a few nights gluing in my immediate future!
I also did this to explain the way I made the spare magazines for my quadruple flak, another project which hasn't progressed beyond the state it was in when I shoved it on the Blog! But I do now have two of those Frozen sleighs to add to the final diorama - if I ever go back to it?
Just use a set of dividers to score-out a circular strip, but before you cut through the two outer rings do some shallower ones inside them, which will pick-up paint and look like the reinforcing stampings on the originals. To fit them into the kits magazine-slots you have to remove the two shaded areas. If they are going in the racks at the base of the gun, paint the top ends brass for ready ammo' , if they are being littered about on the ground paint one end black for an 'empty' shadow.
On the left are seen the commercial magazines on an Esci Flakpanzer kit, on the right homemade ones on an AHM Hasegawa half-track, they are not brilliant, I wasn't doing any measuring, it was all rather 'by eye', but you get the idea! M is for Marx. I don't know where to look at the moment, or what to shoot!
I'm like a kid in a sweet shop, every box I open either has old friends, things I'd forgotten, stuff that came in as I was packing up or things which need to be combined with the stuff that's come-in since, this is a combining lot. Anyway the old box ended-up here, so we've had dips in it for Disney oddities and Wild West Ri-Toy comparisons in the last few years, but in cross-loading the ones for the other box I shot these.